Models for inflammasome activation and assembly. The NLR family members and the HIN-200 proteins, AIM2 and IFI16, assemble inflammasome complexes. NLRs are characterised by a NACHT domain with or without an N-terminal PYD domain and a variable number of LRRs. AIM2 and IFI16 contain an N-terminal PYD domain followed by a DNA binding HIN-200 domain. The PYD domain of NLRP3, 6 and 12, AIM2 and IFI16 recruit the adaptor protein ASC via homotypic binding to its PYD domain allowing indirect recruitment of caspase-1 through interaction with the CARD domain. NLRP1 and NLRC4 directly recruit caspase-1 through a CARD domain. NLRC4 is activated by NAIP proteins bound to specific ligands, NAIP 2 binds to the bacterial rod protein PrgJ whereas NAIP 5 and 6 bind to bacterial flagellin. Activation of the inflammasome leads to maturation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 aswell as inflammatory cell death by pyroptosis. Abbreviations: AIM2, absent in melanoma 2; CARD, caspase recruitment domain; DAMP, danger-associated molecular pattern; FIND, domain with function to find; IFI16, Interferon-γ inducible protein 16; LRR, leucine rich repeat; NACHT, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain; NAIP, NLR family apoptosis inhibitor; NLR, Nod-like receptor, PAMP, pathogen associated molecular pattern; PYD, pyrin domain.