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Table 1 Characteristics of hypernatremic patients and risk factors for death occurrence during hospitalization

From: Undercorrection of hypernatremia is frequent and associated with mortality

Characteristics Total population (% or mean ± SD) Death during hospitalization (% or mean ± SD) No death during hospitalization (% or mean ± SD)
  n = 85 n = 19 n = 59
Age (years) 79.7 ± 14 85.3 ± 10.7 77.2 ± 14.7
Male 44% 63% 41%
Cause of admission    
Asthenia 40% 53% 32%
Short breath 16% 32% 6%
Fever 12% 5% 15%
Diarrhea, vomiting or abdominal pain 9% 0% 14%
Neurologic symptom 8% 0% 12%
Trauma 4% 0% 3%
Hypotension 4% 5% 3%
Gastrointestinal bleeding 2% 5% 2%
Other    
Place of origin and personal environment    
Home 45% 42% 51%
Institution 50% 47% 46%
Home medical care 5% 11% 3%
Season of occurrence    
Winter 39% 47% 34%
Spring 20% 16% 24%
Summer 20% 26% 20%
Autumn 21% 11% 22%
Dementia 28% 31% 27%
Treatment modifying renal water excretion 23% 29% 24%
Loop diuretic 14% 22% 14%
Thiazide 4% 7% 4%
Potassium-sparing diuretic 3% 0% 4%
Lithium 1% 0% 2%
Characteristics at admission    
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 116 ± 29 94 ± 24 122 ± 26
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 68 ± 18 55 ± 15 73 ± 17
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 84 ± 20 67.8 ± 15.0 89.6 ± 17.8
Neurologic symptoms 66% 88% 59%
Extracellular dehydration 72% 88% 67%
Natremia (mmol/L) 158 ± 8 158.2 ± 6.5 158.5 ± 8.3
Calculated plasmatic tonicity* (mOsm/L) 347 ± 25 357 ± 28 346 ± 24
Calculated plasmatic osmolarity** (mOsm/L) 356 ± 26 365 ± 29 355 ± 25
Creatinine (μmol/L) 170 ± 108 225 ± 117 152 ± 95
eGFR*** (mL/min/1.73 m2) 45 ± 26 33.6 ± 24.2 48.9 ± 26.4
Main diagnosis in emergency department    
Infection 41% 39% 47%
Extracellular dehydration 33% 4% 16%
Gastrointestinal disease 6% 7% 5%
Shock (septic n = 3, hypovolemic n = 1) 5% 40% 16%
Acute pulmonary edema 2% 2% 0%
Other 13% 9% 16%
Perfused solute    
Hypotonic solute 64% 53% 65%
Isotonic solute 28% 42% 23%
No perfusion 1% 0% 2%
Unknown 7% 5% 11%
Natremia correction speed:    
Mean speed between entry and last known natremia (mmol/L/h) −0.18 ± 0.21 −0.1 ± 0.15 −0.2 ± 0.22
No natremia improvement 27% 44% 21%
  1. Seven patients who were lost to follow-up on the day of admission were not included in statistical analysis. *Calculated plasmatic tonicity = ([Na] + [K]) ×2 + Glycemia. **Calculated plasmatic osmolarity = ([Na] + [K]) ×2 + Urea + Glycemia. ***Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated with the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Diseases formula [23].