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Table 2 Initial fluid replacement strategy on arrival at emergency department

From: Undercorrection of hypernatremia is frequent and associated with mortality

Treatments n = 85
Perfused solute
     Hypotonic solute 64%
     Isotonic solute 28%
0.9% sodium chloride 67%
Ringer’s lactate* 21%
Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4** 12%
     No perfusion 1%
     Unknown 7%
Perfused solute according to mean blood pressure
     MBP <70 mmHg 24%
Hypotonic solute 45%
Isotonic solute 55%
     MBP ≥ 70 mmHg 69%
Hypotonic solute 71%
Isotonic solute 20%
No perfusion 2%
Unknown 7%
     Unknown MBP 7%
Other  
No prescribed perfusion rate 74%
Perfusion not reported in file by the nurse 6%
  1. *Ringer’s lactate contains sodium lactate 3.2 g/L and sodium chloride 6 g/L.
  2. **Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 contains hydroxyethyl starch 130 60 g/L and sodium chloride 9 g/L.
  3. As described in the Methods, hypotension requiring isotonic solute perfusion was defined as a mean blood pressure (MBP) <70 mmHg. Thus, intravenous perfusion was inappropriate for almost half of patients with MBP <70 mmHG who received hypotonic solutes, and for nearly a quarter when MBP ≥70 mmHg who received isotonic solutes or were not perfused.