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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with and without Chronic Kidney Disease

From: Prevalence, determinants, and management of chronic kidney disease in Karachi, Pakistan - a community based cross-sectional study

Characteristics Total (n = 2873) No CKD 2514 (87.4) CKD* 359 (12.5) P-value
Age in years, mean ± SD 51.5 ± 10.7 50.5 ± 10.0 58.8 ± 12.3 <0.001
Women, n (%) 1499 (52.2) 1299 (51.7) 200 (55.7) 0.152
Education, n (%)     
  No education 992 (34.5) 832 (33.1) 160 (44.6) <0.001
  Primary & middle 929 (32.3) 813 (32.3) 116 (32.3)  
  Secondary & higher secondary 622 (21.6) 565 (22.5) 57 (15.9)  
  Graduate and above 330 (11.5) 304 (12.1) 26 (7.2)  
Tobacco use, n (%)     
  Current users 1113 (38.7) 980 (39.0) 133 (37.0) 0.003
  Past users 280 (9.7) 227 (9.0) 53 (14.8)  
  Never users 1480 (51.5) 1307 (52.0) 173 (48.2)  
Employed in any occupation, n (%) 1209 (42.1) 1115 (44.4) 94 (26.2) <0.001
Physical Activity, METs < 840, n (%) 1725 (60.0) 1473 (58.6) 252 (70.2) <0.001
Hypertension, n (%)║§ 1267 (44.9) 1013 (41.0) 254 (72.2) <0.001
Diabetes Mellitus, n (%) 615 (21.4) 465 (18.5) 150 (41.8) <0.001
History of CHD, n (%)†† 246 (8.6) 203 (8.1) 43 (12.0) 0.013
History of stroke, n (%) 88 (3.1) 59 (2.3) 29 (8.1) <0.001
Weight in Kg, mean ± SD 64.8 ± 14.4 65.0 ± 14.3 63.4 ± 14.6 0.063
Body mass index, mean ± SD║ 25.8 ± 5.5 25.8 ± 5.5 25.7 ± 5.1 0.767
Systolic BP, mean ± SD 137 ± 24 135 ± 22 153 ± 27 <0.001
Diastolic BP, mean ± SD 86 ± 13 85 ± 12 91 ± 15 <0.001
Fasting plasma glucose, mean ± SD 6.4 ± 2.8 6.2 ± 2.6 7.7 ± 3.8 <0.001
Serum Cholesterol, mean ± SD 4.9 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.0 5.0 ± 1.2 0.003
LDL, mean ± SD 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 1.0 0.087
HDL, mean ± SD 1.0 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 0.196
Triglycerides, mean ± SD 1.8 ± 1.1 1.8 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.2 <0.001
eGFR, median (25th –75th percentiles) 92.8 (82.7 – 101.5) 94.6 (85.9 – 102.1) 68.2 (52.1 – 92.5) 0.001
UACR, median (25th –75th percentiles) 0.58 (0.38 – 1.07) 0.53 (0.36 – 0.83) 6.24 (3.46 – 19.60) <0.001
  1. CKD = Chronic Kidney Disease; METs = Metabolic Equivalents; CHD = Coronary Heart Disease; BP = Blood Pressure; LDL = Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL = High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol; UACR = Urinary Albumin to Creatinine Ratio.
  2. *CKD is defined as the eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated by CKD-EPIPK (0.686 × CKD-EPI1.059) or urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥3 mg/mmol.
  3. ║Missing observations: for hypertension status 50 were missing and for BMI 2 were missing.
  4. §Hypertension was defined as persistent elevation of SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg on the basis of average of last two of three readings measured 5 minutes apart at each visit, on two separate occasions, or taking antihypertensive medications.
  5. Diabetes defined as fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or on anti-diabetic medications.
  6. ††CHD was defined as self-reported history of coronary heart disease.
  7. Reported in SI units (mmol/L).