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Table 4 Use of antihypertensive medication by class of drugs among CKD patients with hypertension according to level of UACR

From: Prevalence, determinants, and management of chronic kidney disease in Karachi, Pakistan - a community based cross-sectional study

Anti-hypertensive medications Overall, n (%, 95% CIs) UACR, mg/mmol, n (%, 95% CIs)
<3.0 ≥3.0 ≥3.0 and diabetes
n = 267 N = 56 N = 211 N = 107
Antihypertensive medications, mean ± SD 1.4 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.9
ACEI/ARB only 26 (9.7, 6.5 – 13.9) 7 (12.5, 5.2 – 24.1) 19 (9.0, 5.5 – 13.7) 10 (9.3, 4.6 – 16.5)
ACEI/ARB only or in combination with others 45 (16.9, 12.6 – 21.9) 12 (21.4, 11.6 – 34.4) 33 (15.6, 11–21.3) 20 (18.7, 11.8 – 27.4)
Beta blockers only 43 (16.1, 11.9 – 21.1) 9 (16.1, 7.6 – 28.3) 34 (16.1, 11.4 – 21.8) 13 (12.1, 6.6 – 19.9)
Beta blockers only or in combination with others 64 (24.0, 19.0 – 29.6) 15 (26.8, 15.8 – 40.3) 49 (23.2, 17.7 – 29.5) 22 (20.6, 13.4 – 29.5)
Calcium channel blockers only 18 (6.7, 4.0 – 10.4) 4 (7.1, 2.0 – 17.3) 14 (6.6, 3.7 – 10.9) 10 (9.3, 4.6 – 16.5)
Calcium channel blockers only or in combination with others 40 (15.0, 10.9 – 19.8) 9 (16.1, 7.6 – 28.3) 31 (14.7, 10.2 – 20.2) 21 (19.6, 12.6 – 28.4)
Diuretics only 3 (1.1, 0.2 – 3.2) 2 (3.6, 0.4 – 12.3) 1 (0.5, 0.0 – 2.6) 1 (0.9, 0.0 – 5.1)
Diuretics only or in combination with others 19 (7.1, 4.3 – 10.9) 6 (10.7, 4–21.9) 13 (6.2, 3.3 – 10.3) 12 (11.2, 5.9 – 18.8)
Any combinations 36 (13.5, 9.6 – 18.2) 10 (17.9, 8.9 – 30.4) 26 (12.3, 8.2 – 17.5) 18 (16.8, 10.3 – 25.3)
  1. UACR = Urinary Albumin to Creatinine Ratio; ACEI/ARB = Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/Angiotensin receptor blocker.
  2. Combination antihypertensive medications are based on various combinations of 2 or more above-mentioned anti-hypertensive drugs. They are not included in the individual drug categories. Each individual drug refers to monotherapy.
  3. Patients with diabetes mellitus and UACR ≥3 mg/mmol along with CKD and hypertension.