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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study population

From: Non-linear association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with urinary albumin excretion rate in normoalbuminuric subjects

  Total UACR <10 mg/g UACR 10–29 mg/g P value Serum 25(OH)D ≥15 mg/ Serum 25(OH)D <15 mg/g P value
  (N = 14,594) (N = 12,170) (N = 2,424)   (N = 10,505) (N = 4,089)  
Age (years) 54.0 ± 9.0 53.4 ± 8.5 56.6 ± 9.8 <0.01 54.3 ± 8.7 53.0 ± 9.0 <0.01
Male (N/%) 9,441/64.7 8,168/67.1 1,276/52.5 <0.01 7,237/68.9 2,204/53.9 <0.01
Season (N/%)     <0.01    <0.01
Spring 3,813/26.1 3,195/26.3 619/25.5   2,550/24.3 1,263/30.9  
Summer 3,772/25.8 3,217/26.4 557/22.9   3,004/28.6 768/18.8  
Autumn 3,620/24.8 3,010/24.7 611/25.2   2,853/27.2 767/18.8  
Winter 3,389/23.2 2,748/22.6 642/26.4   2,098/20.0 1,291/31.6  
BMI 24.39 ± 2.97 24.36 ± 2.90 24.53 ± 3.25 0.15 24.54 ± 2.90 24.01 ± 3.12 <0.01
25(OH)D (ng/mL) 20.4 ± 8.4 20.5 ± 8.4 20.0 ± 8.7 <0.01 23.8 ± 7.4 11.7 ± 2.3 <0.01
UACR (mg/g) 4.3 (2.5-7.7) 3.6 (2.2-5.6) 14.5 (11.9-19.1) <0.01 4.2 (2.4-7.5) 4.6 (2.7-8.2) <0.01
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.5 ± 1.5 14.5 ± 1.5 14.2 ± 1.7 <0.01 14.6 ± 1.5 14.2 ± 1.6 <0.01
Serum albumin (g/dL) 4.4 ± 0.3 4.4 ± 0.3 4.4 ± 0.3 0.89 4.4 ± 0.3 4.4 ± 0.3 <0.01
Serum calcium (mg/dL) 9.1 ± 0.4 9.0 ± 0.4 9.1 ± 0.4 <0.01 9.1 ± 0.4 9.0 ± 0.4 <0.01
Serum phosphorus (mg/dL) 3.5 ± 0.5 3.4 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 0.6 <0.01 3.4 ± 0.5 3.5 ± 0.5 <0.01
hs-CRP (mg/dL) 0.10 (0.00-0.10) 0.10 (0.00-0.10) 0.10 (0.00-0.20) <0.01 0.10 (0.00-0.10) 0.10 (0.00-0.10) 0.003
Total cholesterol 189 ± 35 189 ± 34 188 ± 39 0.38 190 ± 35 187 ± 36 <0.01
LDL-cholesterol 121 ± 33 122 ± 32 120 ± 35 0.153 122 ± 33 120 ± 33 <0.01
HDL-cholesterol 54 ± 13 54 ± 13 54 ± 14 0.762 54 ± 13 54 ± 13 0.768
Triglyceride 120 ± 74 119 ± 72 126 ± 82 <0.01 122 ± 74 116 ± 74 <0.01
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 85.8 ± 18.6 86.3 ± 17.3 86.7 ± 20.7 0.365 85.1 ± 17.4 89.4 ± 18.7 <0.01
Diabetes 1,348/9.2 1,001/8.2 348/14.3 <0.01 972/9.3 376/9.2 0.914
Hypertension 1,721/11.8 1,289/10.6 435/17.9 <0.01 1,279/12.2 442/10.8 0.022
RAS blocker 1,013/6.9 765/6.3 250/10.3 <0.01 755/7.2 258/6.3 0.061
Vitamin D supplementation 1,012/6.9 766/6.8 247/11.0 <0.01 700/7.2 312/8.3 0.038
  1. Abbreviations: 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D, BMI body mass index, UACR urine albumin-creatinine ratio, hs-CRP high sensitivity-C-reactive protein, LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL how density lipoprotein, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, RAS renin angiotensin system. Variables are expressed as the means ± SD or median (25th,75th percentiles).