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Table 3 Comparison of REE, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Markers in Smokers and Non-smokers

From: Smoking, oxidative stress and inflammation: Impact on resting energy expenditure in diabetic nephropathy

Parameter Non-smokers Smokers Difference (Smokers – non-smokers) p
REE/kg body wt. 21.0 (19.7 – 22.3) 24.3 (22.3 – 26.2) 3.26 (0.87 – 5.6) 0.009
Respiratory Quotient 0.85 (0.83 – 0.87) 0.81 (0.78 – 0.85)   NS
Oxidative Stress Makers     
Plasma malondialdehyde (μM/L) 0.94 (0.79 – 1.08) 1.20 (0.98 – 1.41) 0.26 (0.0 – 0.52) 0.05
Urine malondialdehyde/urine creatinine ratio (μM/g creatinine) 3.36 (2.44 – 4.28) 6.33 (4.95 – 7.72) 2.97 (1.31 – 4.64) 0.001
Plasma total carbonyl (DU) 0.818 (0.728 – 0.908) 0.791 (0.658 – 0.924)   NS
Urine total carbonyl (DU) 0.454 (0.336 – 0.571) 0.444 (0.270 – 0.617)   NS
Plasma albumin carbonyl (DU) 1.425 (1.278 – 1.572) 1.441 (1.225 – 1.658)   NS
Urine albumin carbonyl (DU) 0.598 (0.438 – 0.758) 0.591 (0.356 – 0.827)   NS
Inflammation Markers     
White blood cell count (number/μL) 7897 (6885 – 8908) 9139 (7647 – 10,631)   NS
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.80 (0.37 – 1.23) 1.77 (1.13 – 2.40) 0.97 (0.21 – 1.74) 0.014
Interleukin-6 (pg/mL) 2.13 (1.48 – 2.78) 3.28 (2.31 – 4.25) 1.15 (-0.02 – 2.32) 0.053
Tumor necrosis factor-α (pg/mL) 4.05 (3.05 – 5.05) 3.89 (2.40 – 5.38)   NS
MCP-1/Creatinine (pg/mg) 398 (288 – 508) 399 (228 – 569)   NS
Other variables     
HbA1C (%) 7.46 (6.64 – 8.27) 8.73 (7.52 – 9.94)   NS
Plasma glucose (mg/dL) 132 (110 – 153) 168 (136 – 200)   NS
Protein nitrogen appearance rate (g/kg/d) 0.76 (0.68 – 0.83) 0.81 (0.71 – 0.92)   NS
Iothalamate clearance (mL/min/1.73 m2) 29.1 (19.6 – 38.6) 46.7 (32.7 – 60.6) 17.6 (0.7 – 34.6) 0.042
24 hour urine protein (mg/d) 3384 (2180 – 4588) 4189 (2410 – 5967)   NS
Thyroid stimulating hormone 2.32 (1.87 – 2.78) 2.04 (1.37 – 2.71)   NS
  1. Values reported are least square mean values with 95% confidence intervals are calculated from the mixed model ANOVA model as described in methods. DU stands for densitometric units, REE for resting energy expenditure, MCP-1 for monocyte chemotactic protein-1.