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Table 4 Increase in resting energy expenditure in unadjusted and adjusted models associated with smoking

From: Smoking, oxidative stress and inflammation: Impact on resting energy expenditure in diabetic nephropathy

Adjusted variable Resting Energy Expenditure (kcal/kg/d) 95% confidence interval of the estimate P value
None (Unadjusted model) 3.26 0.87 – 5.6 0.009
Age 3.70 1.05 – 6.35 0.008
Age + GFR 3.67 0.94 – 6.40 0.01
Age + GFR + Urine MDA/Cr 3.95 1.06 – 6.84 0.009
Age + GFR + Urine MDA/Cr + CRP 3.71 0.74 – 6.69 0.016
Age + GFR + Urine MDA/Cr + CRP + Plasma MDA 3.48 0.57 – 6.39 0.021
Age + GFR + Urine MDA/Cr + CRP + Plasma MDA + HbA 1 C 3.51 0.59 – 6.45 0.020
  1. Adjustment for covariates are evaluated at the means which were age = 66.7 years, GFR = 35.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, Urine MDA/Cr = 4.3 μmol/g, Plasma MDA 1.03 μmol/L, CRP = 1.00 mg/dL, HbA1C = 7.78%.