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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics

From: Comparative mortality of hemodialysis patients at for-profit and not-for-profit dialysis facilities in the United States, 1998 to 2003: A retrospective analysis

   Facility Profit Status    
Characteristic All, 100.0% N = 205,076 Not-For-Profit, 20.1% n = 41,307 For-Profit, 79.9% n = 163,769 P* AOR For-Profit (95% CI) P
Facility affiliation     < 0.0001   
   Freestanding 12.9 41.4 98.6   Reference -
   Hospital-based 87.1 58.6 1.4   0.01 (0.01–0.01) < 0.0001
Year of dialysis inception     < 0.0001   
   1998 14.7 18.5 13.7   Reference -
   1999 15.4 17.6 14.8   1.16 (1.10–1.23) < 0.0001
   2000 16.6 17.8 16.3   1.12 (1.06–1.19) < 0.0001
   2001 17.0 16.0 17.3   1.06 (1.00–1.12) 0.032
   2002 17.8 15.6 18.3   0.87 (0.83–0.92) < 0.0001
   2003 18.4 14.4 19.5   0.89 (0.85–0.94) < 0.0001
Age group (years)     < 0.0001   
   ≤ 40 7.1 7.7 7.0   Reference -
   40 to 65 33.7 32.1 34.1   1.10 (1.04–1.17) 0.002
   > 65 59.1 60.2 58.9   1.14 (1.06–1.22) 0.0002
Sex     < 0.0001   
   Male 52.0 53.3 51.7   0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.280
   Female 48.0 46.7 48.3   Reference -
Race     < 0.0001   
   White 62.6 64.9 62.0   Reference -
   Black 32.4 29.1 33.2   0.91 (0.88–0.95) 0.001
   Other 5.1 5.9 4.8   0.96 (0.90–1.03) 0.297
Body mass index (kg/m2)     < 0.0001   
   < 18.5 5.9 6.4 5.8   0.90 (0.84–0.96) 0.001
   18.5 to < 25 38.7 39.0 38.6   Reference -
   25 to < 30 28.3 28.2 28.3   1.02 (0.98–1.06) 0.358
   ≥ 30 27.1 26.4 27.3   1.04 (1.00–1.08) 0.074
Employment status     < 0.0001   
   Employed 10.4 10.6 10.3   Reference -
   Unemployed 43.7 41.1 44.4   0.96 (0.91–1.01) 0.093
   Retired 45.9 48.4 45.3   0.89 (0.84–0.94) < 0.0001
Cause of ESRD     < 0.0001   
   Diabetes mellitus 48.7 47.6 49.0   Reference -
   Hypertension 30.8 28.4 31.4   1.09 (1.05–1.13) < 0.0001
   Glomerulonephritis 7.9 9.1 7.6   0.91 (0.86–0.97) 0.002
   Other 12.6 14.9 12.0   0.92 (0.87–0.96) 0.0003
Hospitalization (days)     < 0.0001   
   0 65.9 65.6 66.0   Reference -
   0 to 5 15.6 15.1 15.7   1.04 (0.99–1.09) 0.110
   > 5 18.5 19.3 18.3   1.16 (1.10–1.22) < 0.0001
Infectious hospitalization 10.6 11.1 10.5 0.0011 0.94 (0.89–1.00) 0.036
Atherosclerotic heart disease 40.1 42.8 39.4 < 0.0001 0.93 (0.90–0.97) 0.0001
Congestive heart failure 45.0 46.2 44.7 < 0.0001 1.04 (1.00–1.07) 0.043
Stroke or TIA 16.0 16.5 15.9 0.0043 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 0.247
Peripheral vascular disease 27.5 29.4 27.1 < 0.0001 0.99 (0.96–1.03) 0.718
Dysrhythmia 18.8 20.5 18.3 < 0.0001 0.91 (0.87–0.95) < 0.0001
Other cardiac disease 13.1 13.5 13.0 0.0223 1.02 (0.98–1.07) 0.347
COPD 14.0 15.4 13.6 < 0.0001 0.88 (0.84–0.92) < 0.0001
Gastrointestinal disease 4.3 4.7 4.1 < 0.0001 0.96 (0.89–1.04) 0.311
Hepatic disease 8.6 6.8 9.1 < 0.0001 1.51 (1.42–1.60) < 0.0001
Cancer 8.8 9.6 8.6 < 0.0001 0.94 (0.89–0.99) 0.022
Clinical benchmarks       
   Urea reduction ratio (%)     < 0.0001   
   < 60 8.3 9.3 8.1   0.93 (0.87–0.99) 0.019
   60 to < 65 11.7 12.0 11.7   Reference -
   65 to < 70 21.7 20.0 22.1   1.20 (1.14–1.27) < 0.0001
   70 to < 75 24.3 21.0 25.2   1.22 (1.16–1.29) < 0.0001
   ≥ 75 20.8 17.2 21.7   1.17 (1.11–1.24) 0.0002
   Unknown 13.1 20.4 11.3   - -
Hemoglobin (g/dL)     < 0.0001   
   < 10 7.6 8.9 7.3   0.89 (0.84–0.95) 0.0002
   10 to < 11 14.6 15.8 14.3   0.96 (0.92–1.01) 0.080
   11 to < 12 28.7 28.7 28.6   Reference -
   12 to < 13 24.9 20.3 26.1   1.23 (1.19–1.29) < 0.0001
   ≥ 13 13.3 9.3 14.3   1.66 (1.57–1.75) < 0.0001
   Unknown 10.9 16.9 9.3   - -
Epoetin dose quartiles     < 0.0001   
(units/month)       
   < 35,766 22.3 23.3 22.0   Reference -
   35,766 to < 58,200 22.4 22.3 22.4   0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.050
   58,200 to < 91,250 22.3 20.0 22.9   1.06 (1.02–1.11) 0.009
   ≥ 91,250 22.3 17.7 23.4   1.16 (1.10–1.21) < 0.0001
   Unknown 10.8 16.7 9.3   - -
Intravenous iron use 71.1 60.1 73.9 < 0.0001 1.23 (1.19–1.27) < 0.0001
Blood transfusion 6.3 6.8 6.2 < 0.0001 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 0.025
On transplant waiting list 2.7 3.6 2.5 < 0.0001 0.75 (0.69–0.82) < 0.0001
  1. Values are percentage of n in column head. AOR, adjusted odds ratio; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; TIA, transient ischemic attack.
  2. *Compared using the χ2 test.
  3. Using multiple logistic regression, with adjustment for facility affiliation, year of dialysis inception, age group, sex, race, body mass index, employment status, cause of ESRD, days of hospitalization, infectious hospitalization, and comorbid conditions.
  4. To convert hemoglobin in g/dL to g/L, multiply by 10.