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Table 1 Participant characteristics by APOL1 Risk group and income

From: Apolipoprotein L1, income and early kidney damage

   APOL1 Risk group Income status
Characteristic n Low-Risk (n = 389) High-Risk (n = 73) P value Lowest Income <14,000/yr) (n = 185) Higher Income (≥14,000/yr (n = 277) P value
Demographics        
Age (SD), years 462 47.6 (8.9) 45.9 (9.0) 0.123 47.9 (8.9) 47.0 (8.9) 0.253
Female, % 462 56.3 63.0 0.305 58.9 56.3 0.631
Percentage European Ancestry (SD), % 462 17.4 (8.5) 16.7 (8.7) 0.570 17.9 (9.3) 16.8 (8.0) 0.161
Socioeconomic Factors        
Less than high school education, % 462 33.9 30.1 0.590 30.8 35.0 0.366
Unemployed, % 411 40.9 39.3 0.888 66.3 23.3 <0.001
Uninsured, % 411 38.3 30.1 0.234 42.2 33.6 0.063
No regular health care source, % 411 37.7 36.1 0.886 45.8 31.8 0.005
Clinical and Behavioral Factors        
Hypertension, % 429 55.7 50.0 0.427 60.0 51.4 0.092
Systolic Blood Pressure, mean (SD), mmHg 450 123 (18) 121 (16) 0.534 122 (19) 122 (18) 0.891
Diabetes, % 462 24.9 19.2 0.370 20.5 26.4 0.182
Cardiovascular Disease, % 461 17.8 19.2 0.742 21.1 15.9 0.175
Total Serum Cholesterol, mean (SD), mg/dL 462 184 (48) 191 (43) 0.257 178 (42) 190 (51) 0.007
Obesity, % 457 41.3 38.9 0.794 34.4 45.3 0.025
Tobacco Use ≥ 100 cigs, % 435 70.5 69.6 0.886 76.8 66.3 0.023