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Table 1 Demographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics of subjects by reduced renal function, albuminuira and CKD

From: Association of serum irisin and body composition with chronic kidney disease in obese Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study

  Reduced renal function Albuminuira CKD
Variables No Yes P value No Yes P value No Yes P value
Demographics          
N (%) 1075 (96.4%) 40 (3.6%)   889 (79.7%) 226 (20.3%)   857 (76.9%) 258 (23.1%)  
Sex    0.6    <0.001‡    <0.001‡
Female (n, %) 737 (68.6%) 29 (72.5%)   584 (65.7%) 182 (80.5%)   562 (65.6%) 204 (79.1%)  
Male (n, %) 338 (31.4%) 11 (27.5%)   305 (34.3%) 44 (19.5%)   295 (34.4%) 54 (20.9%)  
Age (years) 53.0 ± 7.1 58.9 ± 6.7 <0.001‡ 52.8 ± 7.2 54.6 ± 7.2 0.002† 52.6 ± 7.1 55.1 ± 7.3 <0.001‡
Education categories, (n, %)    0.2    0.1    0.4
Illiteracy 292 (27.2%) 10 (25.0%)   227 (25.5%) 75 (33.2%)   221 (25.8%) 81 (31.4%)  
Elementary school 324 (30.1%) 6 (15.0%)   263 (29.6%) 67 (29.7%)   257 (30.0%) 73 (28.3%)  
Middle school 243 (22.6%) 13 (32.5%)   215 (24.2%) 41 (18.1%)   204 (23.8%) 52 (20.2%)  
High school 136 (12.7%) 6 (15.0%)   113 (12.7%) 29 (12.8%)   108 (12.6%) 34 (13.2%)  
College or above 80 (7.4%) 5 (12.5%)   71 (8.0%) 14 (6.2%)   67 (7.8%) 18 (7.0%)  
Life style          
Ever smoking (n, %) 289 (26.9%) 6 (15.0%) 0.1 264 (29.7%) 31 (13.7%) <0.001‡ 258 (30.1%) 37 (14.3%) <0.001‡
Ever drinking (n, %) 128 (11.9%) 2 (5.0%) 0.2 114 (12.8%) 16 (7.1%) <0.001‡ 112 (13.1%) 18 (7.0%) <0.001‡
Physical activity (MET-h/week) 84.4 (54.4, 148.4) 84.0 (28.0, 140.0) 0.1 84.0 (46.2, 140.0) 102.0 (56.0, 163.8) 0.005† 84.0 (46.2, 141.8) 101.4 (56.0, 158.2) 0.027*
Body composition indices          
BMI (kg/m2) 27.4 ± 3.1 27.9 ± 2.6 0.4 27.3 ± 2.9 28.1 ± 3.4 <0.001‡ 27.3 ± 3.0 28.0 ± 3.3 <0.001‡
Waist circumference (cm) 93.6 ± 7.1 93.7 ± 5.5 1.0 93.4 ± 6.9 94.6 ± 7.6 0.023* 93.4 ± 7.0 94.3 ± 7.3 0.1
Waist hip ratio 0.937 ± 0.050 0.938 ± 0.049 0.8 0.936 ± 0.050 0.939 ± 0.047 0.5 0.936 ± 0.050 0.938 ± 0.047 0.6
Body fat mass (kg) 23.8 ± 5.3 25.8 ± 6.1 0.021* 23.5 ± 5.3 25.2 ± 5.4 <0.001‡ 23.5 ± 5.2 25.2 ± 5.4 <0.001‡
Body fat rate (%) 34.7 ± 6.7 36.5 ± 6.9 0.1 34.1 ± 6.7 37.1 ± 6.4 <0.001‡ 34.0 ± 6.7 36.9 ± 6.5 <0.001‡
Body fat free weight (kg) 45.9 ± 8.5 44.8 ± 6.8 0.4 46.4 ± 8.6 43.9 ± 7.5 <0.001‡ 46.4 ± 8.6 44.0 ± 7.5 <0.001‡
Muscle mass (kg) 43.4 ± 8.2 42.2 ± 6.6 0.4 43.8 ± 8.2 41.4 ± 7.2 <0.001‡ 43.8 ± 8.3 41.5 ± 7.2 <0.001‡
Clinical characteristics          
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.7 ± 17.7 140.5 ± 20.1 0.019* 131.5 ± 16.4 143.6 ± 20.1 <0.001‡ 131.2 ± 16.2 143.2 ± 19.9 <0.001‡
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.8 ± 10.8 81.2 ± 12.8 0.4 78.8 ± 10.4 83.9 ± 11.5 <0.001‡ 78.8 ± 10.4 83.5 ± 11.6 <0.001‡
Serum albumin (g/L) 49.1 ± 2.4 48.4 ± 3.0 0.1 49.0 ± 2.4 49.2 ± 2.4 0.4 49.0 ± 2.4 49.1 ± 2.5 0.6
Serum glubulin (g/L) 25.9 ± 3.4 27.4 ± 3.1 0.009† 25.8 ± 3.4 26.9 ± 3.4 <0.001‡ 25.7 ± 3.4 26.9 ± 3.3 <0.001‡
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.88 ± 1.29 1.83 ± 0.97 0.8 1.82 ± 1.25 2.10 ± 1.38 0.003† 1.81 ± 1.26 2.06 ± 1.34 0.009†
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.87 ± 1.09 5.88 ± 1.13 0.9 5.81 ± 1.07 6.09 ± 1.14 <0.001‡ 5.81 ± 1.06 6.06 ± 1.14 <0.001‡
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.37 ± 0.30 1.35 ± 0.26 0.7 1.37 ± 0.30 1.36 ± 0.28 0.6 1.37 ± 0.30 1.36 ± 0.28 0.6
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.65 ± 1.02 3.76 ± 0.93 0.5 3.62 ± 1.00 3.78 ± 1.04 0.038* 3.62 ± 1.00 3.78 ± 1.02 0.024*
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 6.17 ± 1.77 5.84 ± 0.87 0.2 6.05 ± 1.51 6.60 ± 2.44 <0.001‡ 6.06 ± 1.53 6.49 ± 2.31 <0.001‡
Glucose 120 min OGTT (mmol/L) 9.06 ± 4.13 8.85 ± 3.32 0.8 8.68 ± 3.80 10.52 ± 4.86 <0.001‡ 8.69 ± 3.84 10.26 ± 4.68 <0.001‡
Fasting insulin (mIU/L) 12.7 ± 6.8 13.9 ± 6.1 0.3 12.3 ± 6.2 14.6 ± 8.3 <0.001‡ 12.2 ± 6.2 14.5 ± 8.1 <0.001‡
HOMA-IR (*10-6 mol*IU*L-2) 3.54 ± 2.37 3.62 ± 1.72 0.8 3.36 ± 2.06 4.28 ± 3.14 <0.001‡ 3.34 ± 2.07 4.21 ± 3.01 <0.001‡
HbA1c 6.21 ± 1.05 6.21 ± 0.65 1.0 6.15 ± 0.94 6.45 ± 1.34 <0.001‡ 6.15 ± 0.95 6.41 ± 1.27 <0.001‡
Blood uric acid (mol/L) 360.2 ± 89.6 424.1 ± 119.9 <0.001‡ 363.7 ± 90.1 357.5 ± 97.3 0.4 361.4 ± 87.9 366.0 ± 102.9 0.5
Hyperuricemia, (n (%)) 404 (37.6%) 26 (65.0%) <0.001‡ 331 (37.2%) 99 (43.8%) 0.1 310 (36.2%) 120 (46.5%) 0.003†
Irisin (ng/mL) 7.29 (2.72, 14.82) 6.46 (2.84, 11.05) 0.5 7.18 (2.76, 15.15) 7.74 (2.58, 13.30) 0.8 7.18 (2.74, 15.23) 7.53 (2.74, 13.13) 0.6
Irisin-log transformed (ng/mL)§ 1.30 ± 1.24 1.28 ± 1.04 1.0 1.31 ± 1.22 1.23 ± 1.29 0.6 1.31 ± 1.23 1.24 ± 1.25 0.6
  1. *p < 0.05, †p < 0.01, ‡p < 0.001.
  2. §Irisin was log-transformed to obtain better approximation of normal distribution.
  3. All percentages are column percentage; except for percentages, all values are mean ± s.d. or median(25th, 75th) for non-normal distribution data.
  4. Abbreviations: A/G ratio, albumin/globulin ratio, BMI body mass index, CKD chornic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MET-h/week metabolic equivalent hours per week.