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Table 1 Characteristics of the Participants by Chronic Kidney Disease Status

From: Association of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 with chronic kidney disease

Variables CKD patients (n = 201) Non-CKD controls (n = 201) P-value for difference
Age, yrs 55.9 ± 9.9 52.5 ± 10.0 0.0007
Male, % 55.2 45.3 0.05
Blacks, % 60.7 51.2 0.06
High school education, % 58.5 81.6 <0.0001
Current cigarette smoking, % 53.7 48.8 0.32
Weekly alcohol drinking, % 27.9 59.2 <0.0001
Regular physical activitya, % 53.0 72.9 <0.0001
History of CVD, % 43.7 7.0 <0.0001
History of hypertension, % 88.1 23.9 <0.0001
History of diabetes, % 49.3 5.5 <0.0001
History of hypercholesterolemia, % 65.7 30.9 <0.0001
Body-mass index, kg/m2 32.2 ± 7.8 28.9 ± 6.4 <0.0001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 132.2 ± 21.0 122.0 ± 14.7 <0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 77.2 ± 13.5 77.6 ± 9.4 0.77
Plasma glucose, mg/dL 119.9 ± 46.7 103.4 ± 35.4 <0.0001
LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 103.3 ± 45.9 118.2 ± 30.2 <0.0001
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 50.3 ± 15.6 57.7 ± 18.0 <0.0001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 43.3 ± 19.9 96.7 ± 16.8 <0.0001
Urinary albumin, mg/24-h 74.5 (12.3, 417.4) 5.9 (4.1, 11.4) <0.0001
  1. Mean ± standard deviation, percentage, or median (inter-quartile range)
  2. LDL low-density lipoprotein; HDL high-density lipoprotein; eGFR estimated-glomerular filtration rate; and CVD cardiovascular disease
  3. aModerate or heavy physical activity at least twice per week