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Table 1 The eight dimensions of PCC

From: Exploring views on what is important for patient-centred care in end-stage renal disease using Q methodology

Dimension Description
1) Respect for patients’ values, preferences, and expressed needs Patients have indicated that they feel the need to be treated with dignity and respect and to be seen as whole persons, not merely as a disease or functional impairment [12,13]. Whole-person care is a concept requiring professionals’ understanding of each patient as a whole by taking the time to really get to know the patient and his/her values and preferences, thereby improving the patient’s quality of life [15,16,18,19]. To enhance PCC, healthcare professionals should involve patients in decisions about their care and support them in setting and achieving their own treatment goals [12,13].
2) Information and education provision Patients expressed the fear that information would be withheld from them [12,13]. The provision of complete information to patients about all aspects of their care is thus necessary. Patients should have access to their care records and be in charge of their care. Open communication between patients and healthcare professionals, which requires professionals to possess high-quality communication skills, is also necessary [18,19].
3) Access to care Access to care involves patients’ ability to make appointments promptly and easily, the availability of healthcare professionals, support and navigation for illiterate patients, and consideration of cultural differences [18]. Hospitals must be accessible to all patients, (including those with mobility issues), post clear directions in several languages, and have a clear, user-friendly scheduling system in place [12,13].
4) Emotional support to relieve fear and anxiety Patients sometimes experience anxiety about the impact of their illness on their lives and those of their loved ones. PCC requires professionals to pay attention to this type of anxiety [12,13].
5) Involvement of family and friends Depending on the seriousness of the condition, an illness can affect not only the patient, but also his/her family and friends. One example is the lengthy hospitalisation of a child. In such cases, PCC may be improved by the availability of accommodations for relatives near the hospital, the involvement of relatives in decisions about the patient’s care, and attention to the role and needs of informal caregivers [12,13].
6) Continuity and secure transition between healthcare settings Especially in the hospital setting, continuity and secure transition between healthcare settings have been identified as important aspects of PCC [12,13]. These concerns refer to in-hospital transfers (e.g. from the intensive care unit to other departments), but also to transitions to rehabilitation centres, nursing homes, and long-term care facilities. Smooth transitions require the transfer of all relevant patient information; ensuring that patients are well informed about where they are going, what care they will receive, and who their contact person will be; and the provision of skilled advice about care and support at home after hospital discharge.
7) Physical comfort Patients’ physical comfort should be supported effectively. Care areas should be clean and comfortable, patients' privacy must be respected, pain should be effectively managed, and healthcare professionals should take patients' preferences about support and their daily living needs into account [12,13,16].
8) Coordination of care Patient care should be well coordinated among professionals (teamwork in care delivery). Healthcare professionals should be well informed so that patients need to tell their stories only once; patients should have a primary contact person who knows everything about their condition and treatment [12,13,18,19].