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Table 2 Q set statements

From: Exploring views on what is important for patient-centred care in end-stage renal disease using Q methodology

Dimension Examples Statements
Patients’ preferences - Providing care in a respectful atmosphere with dignity and respect 1. Healthcare professionals treat patients with dignity and respect.
  - Focus on quality of life issues / whole-person care 2. Healthcare is focused on improving patients’ quality of life.
3. Healthcare professionals take patients’ preferences into account.
  - Informed and shared decision making / patient participation and involvement 4. Healthcare professionals involve patients in decisions about their care.
  - Personal goals and outcomes 5. Patients are supported in setting and achieving their own treatment goals.
Physical comfort - Pain management 6. Healthcare professionals pay attention to pain management.
  - Assistance with daily living needs 7. Healthcare professionals take patients’ preferences for support and daily living needs into account.
  - Hospital surroundings and environment 8. Patient areas in hospital are clean and comfortable.
9. Patients have privacy in the hospital.
Coordination of care - Coordination and integration of care 10. Healthcare professionals are well informed; patients need to tell their story only once.
11. Patient care is well coordinated among professionals.
  - Spokesperson for navigation through the system 12. Patients know who is coordinating their care.
13. Patients have a primary contact who knows everything about their condition and treatment.
  - Teamwork 14. Healthcare professionals work as a team in care delivery to patients.
Emotional support - Anxiety about consequences of the changed situation 15. Healthcare professionals pay attention to patients’ anxiety about their situations.
- Creating support systems 16. Healthcare professionals involve relatives in emotional support of the patient.
- Anxiety about the impact of one’s illness on one’s family and loved ones 17. Healthcare professionals pay attention to patients’ anxiety about the impact of their illness on their loved ones.
Access to care - Access to location / specialist 18. The hospital is accessible for all patients.
- Availability of transportation 19. Clear directions are provided to and inside the hospital.
- Clear instructions provided on how and when to get referral
  - Ease of scheduling appointments 20. Appointment scheduling is easy.
  - Waiting time 21. Waiting times for appointments are acceptable.
  - Language barrier 22. Language is not a barrier for access to care.
- Cultural differences
Continuity and transition - Understandable, detailed information regarding all aspects of care 23. When a patient is transferred to another ward, relevant patient information is also transferred.
  - Coordination and planning of ongoing treatment 24. Patients who are transferred are well informed about where they are going, what care they will receive, and who their contact person will be.
  - Provide information regarding access to support after hospital discharge 25. Patients receive skilled advice about care and support at home after hospital discharge.
Information and education - Information on all aspects of care (e.g. clinical status, progress, prognosis, care processes) 26. Patients are well informed about all aspects of their care.
- Information on processes of care 27. Patients can access their care records.
  - Information and education to facilitate autonomy and self-care 28. Patients are in charge of their own care.
29. Healthcare professionals support patients to be in charge of their care.
  - Open communication between patient and caregiver 30. Open communication between patients and healthcare professionals occurs.
  - Skills and knowledge of caregiver 31. Healthcare professionals have good communication skills.
Family and friends - Accommodation 32. Accommodations for relatives are provided in or near the hospital.
  - Respect for role in decision making 33. Healthcare professionals involve relatives in decisions about the patient’s care.
  - Support for family as caregivers 34. Healthcare professionals pay attention to loved ones in their role as the patient’s caregivers.
  - Recognition of the needs of family and friends 35. Healthcare professionals pay attention to the needs of the patient’s family and friends.