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Table 1 Etiologic classification of FSGS

From: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: molecular genetics and targeted therapies

Primary (idiopathic) FSGS
Secondary FSGS
1. Genetic mutations
NPHS1
NPHS2
CD2AP
TRPC6
ACTN4
INF2
ANLN
ARHGAP24
ARHGDIA
WT-1
LMX1B
LAMB2
PAX2
COQ2, COQ6, PDSS2, ADCK4
2. Virus associated
 HIV
 Parvovirus B19
3. Medication
 Heroin
 Interferon-α
 Lithium
 Pamidronate/alendronate
 Anabolic steroids
4. Adaptive structural-functional responses e.g., glomerular hypertrophy or hyperfiltration
4.1 Reduced kidney mass
 Oligomeganephronia
 Unilateral kidney agenesis
 Kidney dysplasia
 Reflux nephropathy
 Surgical kidney ablation
 Chronic allograft nephropathy
 Any advanced kidney disease with reduction in functioning nephrons
4.2 Initially normal kidney mass
 Diabetes mellitus
 Hypertension
 Obesity
 Cyanotic congenital heart disease
 Sickle cell anemia
5. Malignancy (lymphoma)
6. Nonspecific pattern of FSGS caused by kidney scarring
Focal proliferative glomerulonephritis (IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, pauci-immune focal necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis)
Hereditary nephritis (Alport syndrome)
Membranous glomerulopathy
Thrombotic microangiopathy
  1. Modified from reference [90]