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Table 2 Alternative/novel treatments for FSGS

From: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: molecular genetics and targeted therapies

Circulating factors
• Plasmapheresis/Immunoabsorption [57]
• Galactose [106]
Immune modulation
• Rituximab
• Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) [107109]
Anti-fibrotic therapy
• Tumor necrosis factor (TNF): Adalimumab, a human anti-TNF monoclonal antibody
• Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) [110]: FG-3019, a human monoclonal antibody against CTGF
• Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) [110]: Fresolimumab, a human monoclonal antibody directed against human TGF-β1, 2 and 3
• Pirfenidone [111, 112]: multifaceted roles