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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, kidney function test and urine profile by sex

From: Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in urban adult Cameroonians according to three common estimators of the glomerular filtration rate: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Overall Men Women P
n (%) 500 (100) 267 (53.4) 233 (46.6) -
Mean age, years (SD) 45.3 (13.2) 45.9 (13.5) 44.6 (12.8) 0.267
History of hypertension (%) 61 (12.2) 25 (9.4) 36 (15.5) 0.041
History of diabetes (%) 14 (2.8) 6 (2.2) 8 (3.4) 0.433
History of gout (%) 6 (1.2) 4 (1.5) 2 (0.9) 0.690
Tobacco use currently or formerly (%) 35 (7.0) 34 (12.7) 1 (0.4) <0.001
Alcohol use currently or formerly (%) 272 (54.4) 184 (68.9) 88 (37.8) <0.001
Longstanding use of herbal medicine (%) 289 (57.8) 160 (59.9) 129 (55.4) 0.303
Longstanding use of street medicine (%) 148 (29.6) 81 (30.3) 67 (28.8) 0.768
Mean SBP, mmHg (SD) 132 (24) 137 (23) 128 (24) <0.001
Mean DBP, mmHg (SD) 81 (15) 82 (15) 81 (14) 0.267
Any hypertension (%) 193 (38.6) 109 (40.8) 84 (36.1) 0.311
Mean BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 27.1 (5.3) 25.8 (3.9) 28.6 (6.3) <0.001
BMI > 25 (%) 302 (60.4) 143 (53.6) 159 (68.2) 0.001
Pulse (SD) 77 (13) 74 (13) 79 (12) <0.001
Dipstick abnormalities (%)     
 Albuminuria     0.542
  A1 464 (92.8) 246 (92.1) 218 (93.6)  
  A2 29 (5.8) 18 (6.7) 11 (4.7)  
  A3 7 (1.4) 3 (0.6) 4 (0.8)  
Mean serum creatinine (jaffe), mg/dl (SD) 10.5 (2.6) 11.7 (2.6) 9.1 (1.8) <0.001
Mean serum creatinine (standardized), mg/dl (SD) 9.9 (2.5) 11.0 (2.5) 8.6 (1.7) <0.001
Mean Creatinine clearance, ml/min (SD)     
 MDRD 93.7 (24.9) 93.8 (25.3) 93.7 (24.5) 0.981
 CG 97.8 (24.9) 96.5 (24.8) 99.4 (24.9) 0.201
 CKD-EPI 99.2 (31.4) 95.5 (28.6) 103.5 (33.9) 0.005
Stages of kidney function (eGFR), (%)     
 MDRD >90 259 (51.8) 139 (52.1) 120 (51.5) 0.983
  60–90 214 (42.8) 114 (42.7) 100 (42.9)  
  45–59 24 (4.8) 11 (4.1) 13 (5.6)  
  30–44 2 (0.4) 2 (0.7) 0 (0.0)  
  15–29 1 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0)  
 CG >90 296 (59.2) 155 (58.1) 141 (60.5) 0.854
  60–90 160 (32.0) 88 (33.0) 72 (30.9)  
  45–59 33 (6.6) 16 (6.0) 17 (7.3)  
  30–44 10 (2.0) 7 (2.6) 3 (1.3)  
  15–29 1 (0.2) 1 (0.4) 0 (0.0)  
 CKD-EPI >90 301 (60.2) 152 (56.9) 149 (63.9) 0.206
  60–90 177 (35.4) 104 (39.0) 73 (31.3)  
  45–59 19 (3.8) 8 (3.0) 11 (4.7)  
  30–44 2 (0.4) 2 (0.7) 0 (0.0)  
  15–29 1 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0)  
  1. A albuminuria, BMI body mass index, CG Cockroft-Gault, CKD-EPI chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration, DBP diastolic blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, MDRD Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, SD standard deviation