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Table 2 Creatinine adjusted and unadjusted median urinary concentrations of heavy metals and glyphosate (minimum and maximum values are given in the parenthesis)

From: Simultaneous exposure to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate may contribute to Sri Lankan agricultural nephropathy

Element (Reference range μg/L a) Creatinine unadjusted (μg/L) Creatinine adjusted (μg/g creatinine)
SAN patients (group 1) Controls Endemic (group 2) Controls non-endemic (group 3) SAN patients (group 1) Controls Endemic (group 2) Controls non-endemic (group 3)
Al (0-20) 8.8 (4.6-32.2) 14.7 (3.6-32.4) 6.8 (3.8-28.4) 19.8 (7.5-89.4) 9.3 (2.6-16.3) 5.3 (2.8-28.7)
Sb (0-1) 3.6 (3.5-3.9) 4.9 (4.4-11) 2.2 (1.6-2.9) 8.2 (3.5-10.3) 3.2 (1.6-12.1) 1.7 (1.3-2.6)
As (0-35) 37.5 (11.1-130.3) 102.0 (14.9-187.8) 29.2 (15.2-40.2) 89.3 (21.6-136.6) 56.2 (17.6-160.5) 21. (11.4-40.2)
Ba (NA) 4.4 (2.9-10.9) 16.5 (7.2-177.9) 33.9 (1.9-7.8) 9.5 (4.5-14.4) 13.7 (5.2-66.4) 2.7 (1.4-7.9)
Cd (0-1.3) 2.5 (2.2-3.1) 4.6 (4.1-6.9) 1.9 (1.1-2.2) 5.5 (2.2-8.6) 3.0 (1.7-8.1) 1.3 (1.0-2.0)
Cr (NA) 22.5 (17.1-52.7) 42.9 (15-77.3) 18.1 (11.5-35.6) 50.3 (17.3-146.4) 27.1 (10.8-52.0) 13.7 (9.3-36.0)
Co (0-1.9) 2.5 (1.6-3.5) 4.7 (2.4-5.9) 1.6 (0.9-2.9) 5.9 (1.6-9.2) 3.3 (1.5-7.8) 1.5 (0.7-2.1)
Cu (15-60) 20.7 (9.6-104.5) 35.9 (11.2-56.1) 13.8 (8.5-39.7) 46.0 (9.7-160.8) 19.6 (4.6-61.6) 10.9 (5.5-29.8)
Fe (100-300) 117.2 (28.4-636.3) 622.2 (248.5-1767) 135.1 (69.6-287.5) 250.5 (55.7-1767.5) 513.8 (171.4-965.8) 106.6 (49.1-290.4)
Pb (0-4) 11.8 (11.5-14.2) 20.0 (18.4-24.5) 9.0 (7.8-9.9) 26.5 (11.6-39.4) 12.9 (7.2-23.3) 6.9 (5.7-9.6)
Mn (0.1-0.9) 2.2 (1.5-6.6) 5.9 (3.5-115.1) 1.6 (1.3-4.2) 4.9 (1.6-18.3) 4.2 (2.2-42.9) 1.3 (0.8-4.2)
Mo (6-190) 47.8 (25-213) 98.8 (38-211.8) 50.1 (20.7-187.6) 108.6 (25.3-591.7) 80.9 (14.2-176.8) 33.9 (16.7-189.5)
Ni (0-6) 5.6 (1.7-24.1) 10.1 (2.6-25.2) 4.7 (1.3-11.5) 12.8 (1.7-66.9) 7.2 (1.9-18.6) 3.4 (1.0-11.6)
Se (0-50) 13.1 (9.7-33.1) 22.8 (10.7-52.4) 11.3 (6.6-27.5) 26.6 (16.9-88.9) 18.5 (4.9-34.1) 8.7 (4.5-24.6)
Sr (NA) 102.3 (26.2-368.2) 471.6 (147.7-940.1) 82.9 (26.2-187.2) 191.2 (51.4-1022.8) 304.1 (106.3-514.4) 63.7 (16.6-189.1)
Sn (NA) 30.0(29.6-39.2) 37.0 (36.4-39.4) 47.7 (38.7-57.4) 68.7 (30.4-95.6) 24.6 (13.2-63.2) 35.7 (27.5-51.3)
Ti (0-2) 122.9 (69.9-807.4) 300.0 (38.3-803.1) 124.5 (60.2-604.1) 251.1 (119.8-2242.8) 291.1 (14.3-553.9) 91.9 (38.1-231.3)
V (0-1) 20.0 (13.4-59.3) 44.9 (18.5-188.7) 18.1 (14.2-24.5) 44.4 (13.5-164.7) 31.6 (13.3-70.4) 13.07 (10.8-20.0)
Zn (300-600) 194.7 (139.2-430.1) 344.6 (32.5-756.6) 203.0 (145.6-277.6) 403.9 (203.8-1194.7) 326.7 (192.2-435.6) 144.0 (94.5-280.4)
Glyphosate (NA) 56.8 (28.2- >80) 73.5 (40.2- > 80) 3.3 (1.2-5.5) 127.6 (61.0-195.1) 82.6 (17.1-195.1) 2.4 (0.8-4.4)
  1. aReference range for creatinine unadjusted urinary excretion (μg/L) given by Mayo clinic Rochester, Minnesota [18], USA. NA-reference range not available