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Table 3 Comparison of heavy metal and glyphosate urinary excretion between patients with SAN (group 1), controls from endemic area (group 2) and controls from non-endemic area (group 3)

From: Simultaneous exposure to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate may contribute to Sri Lankan agricultural nephropathy

Element Creatinine unadjusted Creatinine adjusted
Chi-Square value (P value) DF=2 Difference between group 1-2 Difference between group 1-3 Difference between group 2-3 Chi-Square value (P value) DF=2 Difference between group 1-2 Difference between group 1-3 Difference between group 2-3
Z Value Effect sizea Z value Effect sizea Z value Effect sizea Z Value Effect sizea Z Value Effect sizea Z value Effect sizea
Al 4.2 (0.123) -1.32 0.30 -1.29 0.29 -1.74 0.39 11.3 (0.004) -2.34 0.52 -3.10** 0.69 -1.29 0.29
Sb 25.9 (*) -3.80** 0.85 -3.79** 0.85 -3.79** 0.85 19.5 (*) -2.27 0.51 -3.78** 0.85 -3.22** 0.72
As 5.9 (0.051) -1.59 0.35 -1.59 0.35 -2.04 0.46 11.7 (0.003) -1.51 0.34 -3.10** 0.69 -2.35 0.52
Ba 18.7 (*) -3.56** 0.79 -1.29 0.29 -3.71** 0.83 18.0 (*) -1.36 0.30 -3.48** 0.78 -3.63** 0.81
Cd 25.8 (*) -3.80** 0.85 -3.75** 0.84 -3.79** 0.85 21.6 (*) -2.50** 0.56 -3.79** 0.85 -3.64** 0.81
Cr 14.6 (0.001) -2.50** 0.56 -2.65** 0.59 -3.10** 0.69 18.4 (*) -2.65** 0.59 -3.71** 0.83 -2.72** 0.61
Co 19.5 (*) -3.41** 0.76 -2.35 0.53 -3.63** 0.81 16.0 (*) -1.93 0.43 -3.45** 0.77 -2.96** 0.66
Cu 5.3 (0.07) -0.91 0.20 -1.66 0.37 -2.08 0.47 12.8 (0.002) -2.42** 0.54 -3.18** 0.71 -1.82 0.41
Fe 15.1
(0.001)
-3.10** 0.69 -0.23 0.05 -3.55** 0.79 13.2 (0.001) -0.91 0.20 -2.57** 0.57 -3.48** 0.78
Pb 25.9 (*) -3.80** 0.85 -3.80** 0.85 -3.78** 0.85 20.6 (*) -2.57** 0.58 -3.78** 0.85 -3.33** 0.74
Mn 18.8 (*) -3.34** 0.75 -1.90 0.43 -3.71** 0.83 15.7 (*) -0.15 0.03 -3.41** 0.76 -3.41 0.76
Mo 3.8 (0.149) -1.29 0.29 -0.38 0.08 -1.97 0.44 5.9 (0.52) -1.55 0.35 -2.19 0.49 -1.29 0.29
Ni 9.5 (0.009) -2.42** 0.54 -0.91 0.20 -2.72** 0.61 9.8 (0.008) -1.36 0.30 -2.72** 0.61 -2.34 0.52
Se 6.9 (0.032) -1.66 0.37 -1.29 0.29 -2.42** 0.54 13.4 (0.001) -2.42** 0.54 -3.33** 0.74 -1.74 0.39
Sr 17.5 (*) -3.33** 0.74 -1.10 0.25 -3.70** 0.83 15.2 (0.001) -0.91 0.20 -3.10** 0.69 -3.48** 0.78
Sn 22.9 (*) -3.10** 0.69 -3.71** 0.83 -3.71** 0.83 17.4 (*) -3.44** 0.77 -3.18** 0.71 -2.27 0.51
Ti 3.2 (0.199) -1.29 0.29 -0.61 0.14 -1.66 0.37 7.5 (0.023) -1.51 0.34 -2.57** 0.57 -1.51 0.34
V 13.7 (0.001) -2.72** 0.61 -1.02 0.23 -3.44** 0.77 17.4 (*) -1.51 0.34 -3.48** 0.78 -3.48** 0.78
Zn 4.6 (0.098) -1.66 0.37 -0.15 0.03 -2.04 0.46 13.8 (0.001) -2.04 0.46 -3.55** 0.79 -1.89 0.42
Gly 20.4 (*) -1.38 0.31 -3.78** 0.85 -3.80** 0.85 19.8 (*) -0.77 0.17 -3.78** 0.85 -3.79** 0.85
  1. * p value < 0.001, DF degrees of freedom, ** p value less than 0.017, a Bold values are large effect sizes