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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics by sex and urban/rural location

From: Prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease in rural and urban Cameroonians: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Overall Rural Urban p p sex*residence
n (%) 439 (100) 320 (72.9) 119 (27.1)   
Mean age, years (95 % CI) 47.0 (42.5-51.6) 51.0 (49.1-52.9) 36.5 (32.6-40.3) <0.0001 0.007
Men, n; % (95 % CI) 185; 42.1 (35.6-48.7) 127; 39.7 (33.0-46.4) 58; 48.7 (37.3-60.2) 0.154 NA
History of renal disease, n; % (95 % CI)     <0.0001 0.640
Yes 1; 0.2 (0.0-0.7) 0 1; 0.8 (0.0-1.7)   
No 83; 18.9 (0.0-38.1) 12; 3.8 (1.9-5.6) 71; 59.7 (38.7-80.6)   
Don’t know 355; 80.9 (61.3-100.0) 308; 96.2 (94.4-98.1) 47; 39.5 (17.8-61.1)   
History of hypertension, n; % (95 % CI)     <0.0001 0.712
Yes 47; 10.7 (8.3-13.1) 33; 10.3 (7.3-13.3) 14; 11.8 (9.7-13.8)   
No 247; 56.3 (46.5-66.1) 148; 46.3 (43.9-48.5) 99; 83.2 (76.6-89.7)   
Don’t know 145; 33.0 (22.4-43.6) 139; 43.4 (40.4-46.4) 6; 5.0 (0.0-11.8)   
History of diabetes, n; % (95 % CI)     <0.001 0.835
Yes 26; 5.9 (2.7-9.1) 23; 7.2 (3.8-10.5) 3; 2.5 (0.0-6.6)   
No 226; 51.5 (38.3-64.7) 122; 38.1 (35.0-41.3) 104; 87.4 (81.2-93.6)   
Don’t know 187; 42.6 (31.1-54.1) 175; 54.7 (51.6-57.8) 12; 10.1 (6.0-14.2)   
History of gout, n; % (95 % CI)     <0.001 0.063
Yes 5; 1.1 (0.6-1.7) 4; 1.3 (0.6-1.9) 1; 0.8 (0.0-1.7)   
No 187; 42.6 (26.6-58.6) 84; 26.3 (22.8-29.7) 103; 86.6 (80.5-92.6)   
Don’t know 247; 56.3 (40.2-72.3) 232; 72.5 (69.0-76.0) 15; 12.6 (6.2-19.0)   
Tobacco use currently or formerly, n; % (95 % CI) 41; 9.3 (7.5-11.2) 34; 10.6 (8.5-12.7) 7; 5.9 (4.5-7.3) <0.0001 0.009
Alcohol use currently or formerly, n; % (95 % CI) 262; 59.7 (51.3-68.1) 211; 65.9 (60.7-71.1) 51; 42.9 (27.6-58.1) 0.003 0.001
Longstanding use of herbal medicine, n; % (95 % CI) 399; 90.9 (83.8-97.9) 312; 97.5 (96.1-98.9) 87; 73.1 (65.6-80.6) <0.0001 0.090
Longstanding use of street medications, n; % (95 % CI) 384; 87.5 (77.3-97.7) 306; 95.6 (93.9-97.4) 78; 65.5 (51.6-79.4) <0.0001 0.064
Mean systolic blood pressure, mmHg (95 % CI) 119.5 (117.0-122.1) 121.2 (119.5-122.9) 115.0 (111.6-118.5) 0.015 0.163
Mean diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (95 % CI) 77.9 (77.0-78.9) 78.1 (77.0-79.3) 77.4 (76.0-78.8) 0.543 0.253
Any hypertension, n (%) 112; 25.5 (22.3-28.7) 92; 28.8 (25.7-31.8) 20; 16.8 (13.0-20.6) <0.0001 0.077
Mean body mass index, kg/m2 (95 % CI) 26.0 (25.7-26.4) 26.0 (25.6-26.4) 26.2 (25.5-26.8) 0.711 0.004
BMI ≥ 25, n; % (95 % CI) 234; 53.3 (49.5-57.1) 169; 52.8 (49.5-56.1) 65; 54.6 (45.6-63.6) 0.696 0.102
Mean waist girth, cm (95 % CI) 88.4 (87.2-89.7) 89.2 (88.0-90.4) 86.3 (84.8-87.9) 0.021 0.277
Mean fasting glycemia, g/l (95 % CI) 0.92 (0.88-0.96) 0.93 (0.88-0.97) 0.91 (0.87-0.95) 0.539 0.387
Any diabetes, n; % (95 % CI) 43; 9.8 (6.6-13.0) 34; 10.6 (7.2-14.0) 9; 7.6 (2.1-13.1) 0.370 0.976
  1. 95 % CI 95 % confidence intervals