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Table 2 Baseline kidney function test and urine profile by location

From: Prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease in rural and urban Cameroonians: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Overall Rural Urban p p sex*residence
n (%) 439 (100) 320 (72.9) 119 (27.1)   
Dipstick abnormalities, n; % (95 % CI)      
Proteinuria 86; 19.6 (13.5-25.6) 76; 23.8 (18.5-29.0) 10; 8.4 (3.3-13.5) 0.0005 0.155
Leucocyturia 22; 5.0 (2.4-7.6) 10; 3.1 (1.6-4.7) 12; 10.1 (0.0-20.1) 0.034 0.807
Hematuria 2; 0.5 (0.0-1.1) 0 2; 1.7 (0.2-3.2) <0.0001 0.984
Albuminuria, mg/g, n; % (95 % CI)     0.0004 0.148
<30 353; 80.4 (74.3-86.5) 244; 76.3 (71.0-81.5) 109; 91.6 (86.5-96.7)   
30-300 70; 15.9 (10.0-21.8) 64; 20.0 (15.6-24.3) 6; 5.0 (0.0-11.1)   
>300 16; 3.6 (2.1-5.2) 12; 3.8 (1.9-5.6) 4; 3.4 (1.1-5.6)   
Mean serum creatinine, mg/l (95 % CI) 10.6 (10.0-11.2) 10.3; 4.9 (9.6-10.9) 11.6; 3.9 (10.5-12.8) 0.065 0.037
Mean eGFR, ml/min (95 % CI)      
MDRD 109.5 (104.0-115.0) 110.9; 38.2 (105.2-116.5) 105.8; 48.1 (91.7-119.8) 0.522 0.0005
CKD-EPI 106.4 (101.3-111.5) 107.2; 30.1 (102.6-111.8) 104.2; 38.6 (90.1-118.3) 0.622 0.0003
CG 89.1 (83.2-95.0) 88.2; 35.5 (83.1-93.2) 91.8; 35.4 (78.4-105.1) 0.691 0.0002
Stages of kidney function by eGFR, n; % (95 % CI)      
MDRD (ml/min/1.73 m2) >90 303; 69.0 (63.3-74.7) 238; 74.4 (70.4-78.3) 65; 54.6 (38.3-70.9) 0.2681 0.711
60-90 89; 20.3 (15.0-25.5) 53; 16.6 (13.1-20.0) 36; 30.3 (16.7-43.8)   
<60 47; 10.7 (5.4-16.0) 29; 9.1 (3.0-15.1) 18; 15.1 (4.5-25.8)   
CG (ml/min) >90 197; 44.9 (39.7-50.1) 142; 44.4 (40.6-48.2) 55; 46.2 (32.2-60.2) 0.757 0.090
60-90 146; 33.3 (30.6-35.9) 106; 33.1 (29.9-36.3) 40; 33.6 (29.5-37.7)   
<60 96; 21.9 (16.3-27.4) 72; 22.5 (18.2-26.8) 24; 20.2 (5.7-34.6)   
CKD-EPI (ml/min/1.73 m2) >90 309; 70.4 (64.7-76.0) 243; 75.9 (72.3-79.6) 66; 55.5 (38.4-72.5) 0.242 0.543
60-90 82; 18.7 (13.6-23.7) 48; 15.0 (11.9-18.1) 34; 28.6 (15.2-41.9)   
<60 48; 10.9 (5.4-16.4) 29; 9.1 (3.0-15.1) 19; 16.0 (3.9-28.0)   
Albuminuria (≥30) and/or eGFR (<60) MDRD 120; 27.3 (20.6-34.5) 96; 30.0 (24.3-35.7) 24; 20.2 (8.3-32.0) 0.162 <0.0001
Albuminuria (≥30) and/or eGFR (<60) CG 157; 35.8 (27.3-44.2) 129; 40.3 (34.5-46.1) 28; 23.5 (7.8-39.3) 0.072 0.022
Albuminuria(≥30) and/or eGFR(<60)CKD-EPI 121; 27.6 (20.6-34.5) 96; 30.0 (24.3-35.7) 25; 21.0 (7.5-34.6) 0.252 <0.0001
  1. CG Cockroft-Gault, CKD-EPI Chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, MDRD Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, 95 % CI 95 % confidence intervals