Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics according to the presence/absence of chronic kidney disease with glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria categories

From: Prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease in rural and urban Cameroonians: a cross-sectional study

Variables CKD GFR based CKD stages Albuminuria based CKD stages
No Yes p G1-G2 G3-G4 p A1 A2-A3 p
n (%) 381 (86.8) 58 (13.2)   428 (97.5) 11 (2.5)   386 (87.9) 53 (12.1)  
Sex (Men), n; % (95 % CI) 166; 43.6 (36.7-50.5) 19; 32.8 (20.5-45.0) 0.094 185; 43.2 (36.9-49.5) 0 <0.0001 166 (36.2-49.8) 19; 35.8 (23.7-48.0) 0.230
Rural residence, n; % (95 % CI) 275; 72.2 (47.8-96.6) 45; 77.6 (56.7-98.5) 0.432 315; 73.6 (50.2-97.0) 5; 45.5 (0.0-92.3) 0.077 275; 71.2 (46.5-96.0) 45; 84.9 (70.81-99.0) 0.047
Mean age, years (95 % CI) 46.5 (41.5-51.5) 50.2 (46.7-53.8) 0.191 46.9 (42.4-51.5) 50.6 (40.9-60.3) 0.413 46.5 (41.5-51.5) 50.7 (46.8-54.5) 0.193
History of hypertension, n; % (95 % CI)    0.001    0.766    <0.0001
Yes 34; 8.9 (6.1-11.7) 13; 22.4 (12.7-32.1)   42; 9.8 (7.4-12.2) 5; 45.5 (16.6-74.3)   35; 9.1 (6.4-11.7) 12; 22.6 (12.2-33.1)  
No 226; 59.3 (49.7-69.0) 21; 36.2 (26.3-46.1)   242; 56.5 (47.0-66.1) 5; 45.5 (17.7-73.2)   230; 59.6 (49.6-69.5) 17; 32.1 (24.0-40.1)  
Don’t know 121; 31.8 (21.1-42.4) 24; 41.4 (27.1-55.6)   144; 33.6 (23.0-44.3) 1; 9.1 (0.0-28.2)   121; 31.3 (20.6-42.1) 24; 45.3 (31.4-59.1)  
History of diabetes, n; % (95 % CI)    0.017    0.662    0.003
Yes 16; 4.2 (0.9-7.5) 10; 17.2 (6.5-27.9)   23; 5.4 (2.4-8.4) 3; 27.3 (0.0-60.1)   16; 4.1 (0.8-7.5) 10; 18.9 (8.0-29.7)  
No 206; 54.1 (40.8-67.3) 20; 48.3 (19.1-49.8)   219; 51.2 (38.2-64.1) 7; 63.6 (28.4-98.8)   211; 54.7 (41.1-68.2) 15; 28.3 (17.1-39.5)  
Don’t know 159; 41.7 (29.6-53.9) 28; 48.3 (34.6-61.9)   186; 43.5 (31.9-55.0) 1; 9.1 (0.0-28.2)   159; 41.2 (28.8-53.6) 28; 52.8 (40.1-65.6)  
History of gout, n; % (95 % CI)    0.009    0.566    0.0002
Yes 4; 1.0 (0.4-1.7) 1; 1.7 (1.0-2.4)   5; 1.2 (0.6-1.7) 0   4; 1.0 (0.4-1.7) 1; 1.9 (1.2-2.6)  
No 169; 44.4 (28.2-60.5) 18; 31.0 (14.9-47.2)   181; 42.3 (26.6-58.0) 6; 54.5 (7.7-100)   174; 45.1 (28.5-61.6) 13; 24.5 (12.9-36.2)  
Don’t know 208; 54.6 (38.2-71.0) 39; 67.2 (51.4-83.1)   242; 56.5 (40.7-72.3) 5; 45.5 (0.0-92.3)   208; 53.9 (37.2-70.6) 39; 73.6 (62.1-85.1)  
Tobacco use, n; % (95 % CI) 38; 10.0 (8.0-12.0) 3; 5.2 (0.8-9.5) 0.071 41; 9.6 (7.7-11.5) 0 <0.0001 38; 9.8 (7.8-11.9) 3; 5.7 (1.0-10.3) 0.129
Alcohol use, n; % (95 % CI) 231; 60.6 (51.5-69.8) 31; 53.4 (39.5-67.4) 0.310 259; 60.5 (51.9-69.1) 3; 27.3 (0.0-57.0) 0.068 234; 60.6 (51.3-70.0) 28; 52.8 (38.6-67.1) 0.300
Longstanding use of herbal medicine, n; % (95 % CI) 341; 89.5 (81.5-97.5) 58; 100 (100–100) <0.0001 388; 90.7 (83.4-97.9) 11; 100 (100–100) <0.0001 346; 89.6 (81.8-97.4) 53; 100 (100–100) <0.0001
Longstanding use of street medications, n; % (95 % CI) 330; 86.6 (81.5-97.5) 54; 93.1 (85.7-100.0) 0.007 373; 87.1 (76.7-97.6) 11; 100 (100–100) <0.0001 335; 86.8 (76.4-97.2) 49; 92.5 (84.1-100.0) 0.025
Mean systolic blood pressure, mmHg (95 % CI) 118.6 (116.6-120.6) 125.6 (118.3-133.0) 0.053 119.3 (117.1-121.5) 128.3 (103.0-153.5) 0.457 118.5 (116.2-120.7) 127.2 (120.7-133.7) 0.019
Mean diastolic blood pressure, mmHg (95 % CI) 77.7 (76.8-78.5) 79.8 (76.0-83.5) 0.294 77.9 (76.8-78.9) 81.5 (70.4-92.6) 0.511 77.6 (76.8-78.4) 80.3 (76.8-83.8) 0.164
Any hypertension, n; % (95 % CI) 89; 23.4 (19.7-27.0) 23; 39.7 (31.9-47.4) <0.0001 107; 25.0 (21.7-28.3) 5; 45.5 (16.6-74.3) 0.107 90; 23.3 (19.6-27.0) 22; 41.5 (32.7-50.3) <0.0001
Body mass index ≥ 25, n; % (95 % CI) 200; 52.5 (48.7-56.3) 34; 58.6 (48.1-69.2) 0.196 227; 53.0 (48.8-57.3) 7; 63.6 (39.8-100) 0.526 204; 52.8 (49.3-56.4) 30; 56.6 (46.2-67.0) 0.374
Mean fasting glycemia, g/l (SD) 0.91 (0.87-0.94) 1.02 (0.86-1.18) 0.167 0.91 (0.88-0.95) 1.25 (0.73-1.76) 0.200 0.91 (0.87-0.94) 1.02 (0.85-1.20) 0.191
Any diabetes, n; % (95 % CI) 32; 8.4 (4.7-12.1) 11; 19.0 (8.9-29.0) 0.017 40; 9.3 (6.2-12.5) 3; 27.3 (0.0-0.60) 0.102 32; 8.3 (4.6-12.0) 11; 20.8 (10.3-31.2) 0.008
  1. CKD Chronic kidney disease, GFR glomerular filtration rate (GFR); 95 % CI 95 % confidence intervals