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Table 4 Predictors of chronic kidney disease and albuminuria in age, sex and residence adjusted logistic regressions

From: Prevalence and determinants of chronic kidney disease in rural and urban Cameroonians: a cross-sectional study

Variables CKD CKD Stages G3-G4 Albuminuria
OR (95 % CI) p OR (95 % CI) p OR (95 % CI) p
Sex (men) 0.63 (0.36-1.08) 0.095 <0.001 (<0.001- < 0.001) <0.0001 0.76 (0.46-1.25) 0.283
Residence (rural) 1.06 (0.52-2.16) 0.880 0.16 (0.04-0.69) 0.008 1.92 (1.06-3.48) 0.031
Age, per years 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 0.178 1.03 (1.00-1.07) 0.066 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 0.293
History of hypertension   <0.0001   0.056   <0.0001
No 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
Yes 3.95 (2.09-7.46)   4.74 (0.84-26.58)   4.67 (2.63-8.29)  
Don’t know 2.16 (1.29-3.63)   0.50 (0.03-8.66)   2.38 (1.40-4.03)  
History of diabetes   <0.0001   0.004   <0.0001
No 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
Yes 6.64 (2.63-16.75)   4.49 (1.55-13.03)   8.13 (3.17-20.84)  
Don’t know 1.89 (1.09-3.26)   0.17 (0.01-3.11)   2.25 (1.26-4.01)  
History of gout   0.131   <0.0001   0.064
No 1 (reference)   1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
Yes 2.58 (0.96-6.94)   <0.001 (<0.001- < 0.001)   3.13 (1.14-8.59)  
Don’t know 1.74 (0.94-3.23)   1.38 (0.32-5.94)   2.12 (1.04-4.31)  
Tobacco use 0.50 (0.24-1.05) 0.066 <0.001 (<0.001- < 0.001) <0.0001 0.52 (0.25-1.07) 0.077
Alcohol use 0.75 (0.40-1.39) 0.362 0.32 (0.07-1.41) 0.133 0.65 (0.35-1.19) 0.160
Longstanding use of street medications 1.77 (0.87-3.60) 0.113 Few events   1.17 (0.52-2.63) 0.713
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 1.01 (1.00-1.02) 0.018 1.02 (0.99-1.05) 0.158 1.01 (1.00-1.02) 0.002
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 0.175 1.02 (0.97-1.08) 0.342 1.01 (1.00-1.03) 0.038
Any hypertension 2.07 (1.38-3.11) 0.0004 2.85 (0.65-12.45) 0.163 2.19 (1.47-3.25) 0.0001
Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 1.34 (0.89-2.02) 0.157 1.55 (0.35-6.83) 0.564 1.22 (0.84-1.78) 0.288
Any diabetes 2.43 (1.15-5.16) 0.021 3.88 (0.75-20.19) 0.107 2.74 (1.26-5.98) 0.011
  1. CKD Chronic kidney disease, GFR glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 95 % CI 95 % confidence intervals