Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants stratified by hearing impairment

From: Association of hearing impairment with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study of the Korean general population

Characteristics No hearing impairment (n = 4673) Hearing impairment (n = 515) p-value
Age (years), ≥65 49.6 ± 15.7 70.2 ± 9.9 <0.001
Sex (male)a 1914 (41.0) 253 (49.1) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.8 ± 3.4 23.6 ± 3.2 0.239
Smoking (current)a 1845 (38.5) 253 (47.5) <0.001
Alcohol (≥30 g/day)a 481 (10.3) 52 (10.1) 0.491
Residence (rural)a 2397 (51.3) 241 (46.7) 0.442
Education (>college)a 1505 (32.2) 52 (10.1) <0.001
Occupationa    0.411
 Services and others 518 (11.1) 31 (6.0)  
 Industry 411 (8.8) 28 (5.5)  
 Agriculture and fishery 313 (6.7) 63 (12.4)  
Hypertension (yes)a 682 (14.6) 156 (30.2) <0.001
Diabetes (yes)a 439 (9.4) 108 (21.0) <0.001
Dyslipidemia (yes)a 715 (15.3) 190 (19.2) 0.046
Thyroid dysfunction (yes)a 78 (1.6) 17 (3.4) 0.081
HbA1C 5.8 ± 0.8 6.01 ± 0.9 <0.001
Blood lipid profile    
 Total cholesterol 190.3 ± 36.0 189.0 ± 37.5 0.465
 HDL cholesterol 52.0 ± 12.6 48.6 ± 11.9 <0.001
 LDL cholesterol 121.1 ± 34.9 112.8 ± 38.0 0.076
 Triglyceride 130.2 ± 98.4 141.3 ± 123.6 0.062
Urine albumin (ug/ml) 230.2 ± 116.1 392.1 ± 119.8 <0.001
Urine creatinine (mg/dL) 153.5 ± 86.8 122.1 ± 66.3 <0.001
ACR 2.0 ± 1.4 4.1 ± 1.5 <0.001
Microalbuminuriaa 61 (1.3) 15 (2.9) 0.008
Serum creatinine 0.83 ± 0.23 0.89 ± 0.27 <0.001
BUN 14.3 ± 4.3 16.7 ± 5.2 <0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 91.9 ± 26.4 63.6 ± 19.7 <0.001
eGFR < 60a 472 (10.1) 243 (47.1) <0.001
SBP (mmHg) 118.8 ± 16.6 128.6 ± 17.4 <0.001
DBP (mmHg) 75.9 ± 10.4 74.2 ± 10.2 <0.001
Mean hearing level (dB) 13.8 ± 9.7 54.6 ± 14.3 <0.001
  1. Data expressed as mean ± SD, p < 0.05 was set as the significance level, and significant differences between groups are shown in bold. We divided the participants at the 40-dB threshold into the hearing-impairment and no-hearing-impairment groups, using the average threshold of all six frequencies (500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz) for both ears
  2. BMI body mass index, HbA1 C glycosylated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, UACR urinary albumin creatinine ratio, BUN blood urea nitrogen, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BUN blood urea nitrogen, SBP systolic blood pressur, DBP diastolic blood pressure, dB decibel, microalbuminuria defined as ACR ≥3.5 mg/mmol (female) or ACR ≥2.5 mg/mmol (male)
  3. aData are expressed as number (%) unless otherwise indicated