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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the ESRD study population

From: Healthcare decision-making in end stage renal disease-patient preferences and clinical correlates

Variable   Total (n = 458) Predialysis(A) (n = 182) In-centre HD(B) (n = 186) Home HD(C) (n = 90) p-value
Age Mean (std. dev.)    59.84 (13.28) 56.84 (14.78) 51.81 (11.67) p < 0.001a A > C
p < 0.001b B > C
p = 0.017b
Gender Male 296 (64.6 %) 110 (60.4 %) 119 (64.0 %) 67 (74.4 %) p = 0.073c
Education Post high school education 111 (25.1 %) 43 (24.2 %) 31 (17.5 %) 37 (42.5 %) p < 0.001c
A < C p < 0.05d
B < C p < 0.05d
Employment Retired 213 (46.8 %) 94 (51.6 %) 87 (47.3 %) 32 (36.0 %) p < 0.001c
Retired
Unemployed 115 (25.3 %) 31 (17.0 %) 64 (34.8 %) 20 (22.5 %) A > C p < 0.05d
Unemployed
Self-employed 35 (7.7 %) 17 (9.3 %) 10 (5.4 %) 8 (9.0 %) A < B p < 0.05d
Salaried 92 (20.2 %) 40 (22.0 %) 23 (12.5 %) 29 (32.6 %) Salaried
A > B p < 0.05d
C > B p < 0.05d
Ethnicity Non-white 46 (10.1 %) 14 (7.7 %) 20 (10.8 %) 12 (13.3 %) p = 0.32c
BMI (kg/mb) Median (interquartile range)    28.38 (24.27, 32.45) 26.50 (23.08, 31.51) 26.53 (23.63, 30.83) p = 0.031e
A > B p = 0.040f
A > C p = 0.21f
C > B p = 1.00f
Smoking status Never smoked 257 (56.7 %) 98 (54.1 %) 103 (56.6 %) 56 (62.2 %) p = 0.57c
Ex-smoker 133 (29.4 %) 54 (29.8 %) 53 (29.1 %) 26 (28.9 %)
Current 63 (13.9 %) 29 (16.0 %) 26 (14.3 %) 8 (8.9 %)
Caregiver Spouse/partner 250 (56.2 %) 111 (62.0 %) 83 (46.6 %) 56 (63.6 %) p = 0.004c
Spouse/part
Child carer 24 (5.4 %) 12 (6.7 %) 6 (3.4 %) 6 (6.8 %) A > B p < 0.05d
C > B p < 0.05d
Parent carer 34 (7.6 %) 10 (5.6 %) 16 (9.0 %) 8 (9.1 %) F, R, S or C
Friend, relative, sibling or carer 19 (4.3 %) 3 (1.7 %) 13 (7.3 %) 3 (3.4 %) B > A p < 0.05d
Alone 118 (26.5 %) 43 (24.0 %) 60 (33.7 %) 15 (17.0 %) Alone
B > C p < 0.05d
Marital status Married 253 (55.2 %) 106 (58.2 %) 89 (47.8 %) 58 (64.4 %) p = 0.020c
Married
B < C p < 0.05d
Partner 27 (5.9 %) 11 (6.0 %) 10 (5.4 %) 6 (6.7 %)
Single 103 (22.5 %) 38 (20.9 %) 54 (29.0 %) 11 (12.2 %) Single
B > C p < 0.05d
Divorced or separated 40 (8.7 %) 11 (6.0 %) 17 (9.1 %) 12 (13.3 %)
Widowed 35 (7.6 %) 16 (8.8 %) 16 (8.6 %) 3 (3.3 %)
Psych usage Never offered 180 (40.8 %) 70 (38.9 %) 84 (48.8 %) 26 (29.2 %) P < 0.001c
Never offered
B > C p < 0.05d
Never used
A > B p < 0.05d
Used and found useful
C > A p < 0.05d
Used but not useful
C > B p < 0.05d
Never used 209 (47.4 %) 98 (54.4 %) 69 (40.1 %) 42 (47.2 %)
Used and found useful 36 (8.2 %) 6 (3.3 %) 16 (9.3 %) 14 (15.7 %)
Used but not useful 16 (3.6 %) 6 (3.3 %) 3 (1.7 %) 7 (7.9 %)
Primary cause of ESRD Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis 55 (12.0 %) 34 (18.7 %) 12 (6.5 %) 9 (10.0 %) p < 0.001c
Hyp Neph
A > B p < 0.05d
Diabetic Nephropathy 96 (21.0 %) 45 (24.7 %) 42 (22.6 %) 9 (10.0 %) Diab Neph
A > C p < 0.05d
B > C p < 0.05d
Glomerulonephritis 65 (14.2 %) 19 (10.4 %) 30 (16.1 %) 16 (17.8 %) Polycystic KD
C > A p < 0.05d
C > B p < 0.05d
Polycystic Kidney Disease 55 (12.0 %) 18 (9.9 %) 18 (9.7 %) 19 (21.1 %)
Renovascular Disease 12 (2.6 %) 4 (2.2 %) 8 (4.3 %) 0 (0 %)
Chronic Pyelonephritis/ Reflux Nephropathy 29 (6.3 %) 8 (4.4 %) 15 (8.1 %) 6 (6.7 %)
Others 83 (18.1 %) 36 (19.8 %) 32 (17.2 %) 15 (16.7 %)
Unknown 63 (13.8 %) 18 (9.9 %) 29 (15.6 %) 16 (17.8 %)
Yes 121/276 (43.8 %) ~ 83 (44.6 %) 38 (42.2 %)
Hypertension Yes 348 (76.0 %) 152 (83.5 %) 123 (66.1 %) 73 (81.1 %) p < 0.001c
A > B p < 0.05d
C > B p < 0.05d
Diabetes Yes 123 (27.0 %) 56 (30.8 %) 56 (30.4 %) 11 (12.4 %) p = 0.002c
A > C p < 0.05d
B > C p < 0.05d
H/O Anxiety Yes 14 (3.1 %) 5 (2.7 %) 5 (2.7 %) 4 (4.4 %) p = 0.69c
H/O Depression Yes 48 (10.5 %) 17 (9.3 %) 18 (9.7 %) 13 (14.4 %) p = 0.39c
CCI Median (inter-quartile range)    5.00 (3.75, 6.00) 4.00 (3.00, 6.00) 3.50 (2.00, 5.00) p < 0.001e
A > B p = 0.60f
A > C p < 0.001f
B > C p = 0.004f
BDI 0-10 239 (52.2 %) 102 (56.0 %) 91 (48.9 %) 46 (51.1 %) p = 0.783
11-15 73 (15.9 %) 27 (14.8 %) 31 (16.7 %) 15 (16.7 %)
16-20 45 (9.8 %) 18 (9.9 %) 20 (10.8 %) 7 (7.8 %)
21-25 44 (9.6 %) 17 (9.3 %) 20 (10.8 %) 7 (7.8 %)
26-30 25 (5.5 %) 6 (3.3 %) 13 (7.0 %) 6 (6.7 %)
≥31 32 (7.0 %) 12 (6.6 %) 11 (5.9 %) 9 (10.0 %)
STAI State 20-29 148 (33.4 %) 54 (30.0 %) 61 (34.5 %) 33 (38.4 %) p = 0.863
30-39 131 (29.6 %) 57 (31.7 %) 53 (29.9 %) 21 (24.4 %)
40-49 100 (22.6 %) 42 (23.3 %) 38 (21.5 %) 20 (23.3 %)
≥50 64 (14.4 %) 27 (15.0 %) 25 (14.1 %) 12 (14.0 %)
STAI Trait 20-29 121 (27.6 %) 47 (26.3 %) 49 (28.2 %) 25 (29.1 %) p = 0.433
30-39 124 (28.2 %) 46 (25.7 %) 54 (31.0 %) 24 (27.9 %)
40-49 111 (25.3 %) 55 (30.7 %) 39 (22.4 %) 17 (19.8 %)
≥50 83 (18.9 %) 31 (17.3 %) 32 (18.4 %) 20 (23.3 %)
TMT A Median (inter-quartile Range)    46.65 (32.25, 60.00) 47.00 (36.00, 69.00) 35.50 (30.00, 47.53) p < 0.001e
B > A p = 0.39f
A > C p = 0.001f
B > C p < 0.001f
TMT B Median (inter-quartile range)    90.00 (68.50, 120.00) 113.00 (73.00, 145.00) 74.00 (61.00, 94.00) p < 0.0015
B > A p = 0.0236
A > C p = 0.0076
B > C p < 0.0016
3MS ≤75 11 (2.6 %) 2 (1.2 %) 8 (4.6 %) 1 (1.3 %) p = 0.0517
76-80 14 (3.3 %) 6 (3.5 %) 6 (3.5 %) 2 (2.6 %)
81-85 35 (8.3 %) 9 (5.3 %) 21 (12.1 %) 5 (6.5 %)
86-93 157 (37.3 %) 64 (37.4 %) 69 (39.9 %) 24 (31.2 %)
94-100 204 (48.5 %) 90 (52.6 %) 69 (39.9 %) 45 (58.4 %)
  1. aANOVA p-value for overall between groups mean differences
  2. bScheffe adjusted p-values for comparison of pair-wise group means
  3. cPearson Chi-Square p-value
  4. dz-test comparing category proportions between groups, p-value with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing
  5. eKruskal-Wallis test p-value
  6. fMann-Whitney U test p-value with adjustment for multiple testing