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Table 2 Single variable analysis and confounder adjusted analysis (Decision-making)

From: Healthcare decision-making in end stage renal disease-patient preferences and clinical correlates

Single Variable Analysis (API-DM) Confounder Adjusted Analysis (API-DM)
Variable of interest EMM*
(95 % CI)
p-value Confounders Regression Coefficient (95 % CI) p-value
Age (per year)** 71.60-0.37 (−0.48, −0.26) <0.001 Ethnicity, Caregiver, Marital status, Education session, Psych service use, API-IS, group −0.33 (−0.48, −0.19) <0.001
Education High school 49.88 (47.96, 51.80) 0.29 Age, ethnicity, psych service use, diabetes, education session −2.31(−6.12, 1.50) 0.23
Post high school 51.91 (48.64, 55.19)
Gender Male 49.49 (47.44, 51.53) 0.092 CCI −2.03 (−5.47, 1.41) 0.25
Female 52.45 (49.67, 55.24)
Employment Retired 46.05 (43.69, 48.42) <0.001 Ethnicity, caregiver, marital status, psych service use, CCI, education session, TMT A −2.61 (−7.65, 2.42)
7.97 (2.63, 13.30)
0.04 (−7.47, 7.55)
0.001
Unemployed 57.13 (53.94, 60.32)
Self employed 50.00 (44.25, 55.75)
Salaried 56.63 (49.08, 56.18)
Employed 51.90 (48.79, 55.02)
Ethnicity White 50.90 (49.16, 52.64) 0.13 Age, employment 8.22 (2.86, 13.59) 0.003
Non-white 46.65 (41.50, 51.80)
BMI <25 49.89 (47.08, 52.71) 0.74 Age, gender −2.58 (−6.42, 1.26)
−0.06 (−4.05, 3.93)
0.33
25-29.99 50.12 (47.14, 53.09)
≥30 51.37 (48.52, 54.23)
Smoking Status Never smoked 51.19 (48.97, 53.40) 0.65 Age, gender, employment 1.98 (−2.81, 6.76)
2.50 (−2.78, 7.79)
0.64
Ex-smoker 49.39 (46.30, 52.48)
Current 50.33 (45.90, 54.77)
Caregiver Spouse or partner 50.31 (48.07, 52.54) 0.12 Employment, psych service use, CCI, group 3.56 (−0.44, 7.55)
−2.08 (−9.89, 5.72)
1.66 (−5.55, 8.88)
3.28 (−5.15, 11.71)
0.33
Child 46.56 (39.26, 53.86)
Parent 57.35 (51.35, 63.36)
Friend, Relative
Sibling, Carer
53.47 (45.22, 61.72)
Alone 49.05 (45.82, 52.27)
Marital Status Married or partner 51.22 (49.12, 53.31) 0.006 Age, employment, psych service use,
TMT A, group
7.88 (1.51, 14.25)
3.95 (−3.40, 11.31)
4.29 (−3.95, 12.53)
0.041
Single 51.86 (48.44, 55.28)
Divorced or separated 51.28 (45.73, 56.84)
Widowed 40.36 (34.49, 46.22)
Psych service use Not used 49.75 (47.96, 51.54) 0.088 Age, employment, caregiver, marital status, diabetes,
TMT A, group
0.56 (−5.13, 6.24) 0.85
Used 54.25 (49.40, 59.09)
Diabetes No 51.63 (49.70, 53.55) 0.021 Age, employment, psych service use 2.75 (−0.95, 6.46) 0.14
Yes 47.21 (43.99, 50.43)
Heart Failure No 50.91 (49.23, 52.60) 0.042 Age 5.61 (−1.76, 12.99) 0.14
Yes 42.99 (35.54, 50.44)
IHD No 51.51 (49.64, 53.39) 0.032 Age, gender, employment, diabetes, TMT A −0.50 (−4.68, 3.68) 0.81
Yes 47.24 (43.81, 50.66)
Stroke No 50.79 (49.07, 52.51) 0.28 Age, IHD, education session −0.05 (−6.13, 6.04) 0.99
Yes 47.38 (41.46, 53.31)
Solid Organ Malignancy No 50.26 (48.51, 52.01) 0.36 Age, employment, caregiver, psych service use, diabetes, group −2.71 (−8.09, 2.67) 0.32
Yes 52.78 (47.72, 57.84)
Charlson Comorbidity Index (per unit)** 60.67
−2.26 (−3.07, −1.44)
<0.001 Gender, ethnicity, caregiver, marital status, psych service use, education session −1.87 (−2.79, −0.96) <0.001
BDI in 6 categories
(per category) –
low score to high score**
49.20
0.60 (−0.43, 1.63)
0.25 Age, employment, diabetes, API IS −0.28 (−1.33, 0.77) 0.61
Anxiety State in 4 categories
(per category) –
low score to high score**
49.56
0.47 (−1.14, 2.08)
0.56 Age, employment, ethnicity, marital status −0.35 (−1.92, 1.22) 0.66
Anxiety Trait in 4 categories
(per category) –
low score to high score**
48.55
0.82 (−0.75, 2.38)
0.31 Employment,
ethnicity, marital status,
CCI, API IS
−0.60 (−2.18, 0.98) 0.46
3MS in 5 categories
(per category) –
high score to low score**
51.64
−0.63 (−2.49, 1.22)
0.50 Age, employment, diabetes, IHD, TMT A 0.98 (−1.03, 2.99) 0.31
Options education session No 51.29 (49.40, 53.18) 0.11 Age, employment, group 0.11 (−3.73, 3.96) 0.95
Yes 48.13 (44.77, 51.48)
Predialysis education experience Very poor/
Not useful/ Inadequate
52.53 (46.56, 58.49) 0.18 Employment, caregiver, marital status, psych service use, education session, group 1.95 (−4.91, 8.80)
1.58 (−2.30, 5.45)
0.69
Good 50.72 (48.03, 53.40)
Excellent 47.62 (44.79, 50.45)
TMT A (per unit)** 54.21
−0.07 (−0.13, −0.01)
0.018 Age, marital status, psych service use, diabetes, IHD −0.01 (−0.07, 0.05) 0.78
TMT B (per unit)** 54.08
−0.02 (−0.06, 0.01)
0.22 Age, ethnicity, marital status, psych service use, diabetes,
IHD, TMT A
--- ---
API IS Per percentage increase 26.56
0.30 (0.15, 0.44)
<0.001 Age, group 0.19 (0.04, 0.33) 0.010
Group Predialysis
Hospital
Self-care
45.88(43.32, 48.44)
51.96 (49.43, 54.48)
56.81 (53.20, 60.41)
<0.001 Age, caregiver, marital status, psych service use, diabetes, education session, TMT A, API IS −7.09 (−12.09, −2.09)
−1.76 (−6.82, 3.29)
0.006
  1. *Estimated Marginal Mean
  2. **The results for these continuous variables are presented as the intercept, the parameter estimate and the 95 % CI of the parameter estimate
  3. ∆ Analysis not reported as >25 % missing values in the dataset