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Table 3 Adjusted mean annual change in cognitive scores between anemic vs non-anemic participants. A positive parameter estimate denotes a larger decline in cognitive function for the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam, Category Fluency, Buschke Delayed Recall and Boston Naming tests. For the Trailmaking Test A and B, a negative parameter estimate denotes a larger decline in cognitive function

From: Anemia and risk for cognitive decline in chronic kidney disease

Cognitive test N Mean annual change (SE) Parameter estimate for anemia vs. non-anemia
(SE)
P-value
Modified mini-mental state exam 692    
 Model   0.21 (0.05) 0.190 (0.12) 0.11
 Model 2    0.170 (0.13) 0.17
 Model 3    0.130 (0.13) 0.31
Category fluency 690    
 Model 1   0.20 (0.06) −0.280 (0.11) 0.01
 Model 2    −0.200 (0.11) 0.08
 Model 3    −0.140 (0.12) 0.22
Buschke delayed recall 692    
 Model 1   0.19 (0.03) −0.030 (0.06) 0.58
 Model 2    −0.040 (0.06) 0.56
 Model 3    −0.060 (0.06) 0.37
Boston naming 691    
 Model 1   0.07 (0.01) 0.040 (0.02) 0.08
 Model 2    0.040 (0.02) 0.08
 Model 3    0.040 (0.02) 0.06
Trailmaking test A 685    
 Model 1   −0.93 (0.27) 0.070 (0.46) 0.88
 Model 2    −0.210 (0.48) 0.66
 Model 3    −0.200 (0.48) 0.68
Trailmaking test B 685    
 Model 1   −2.36 (0.61) −3.220 (1.52) 0.03
 Model 2    −2.330 (1.62) 0.15
 Model 3    −1.830 (1.67) 0.27
  1. SE standard error
  2. Model 1 is adjusted for age, sex, race, education and CRIC clinical center
  3. Model 2 is adjusted for age, sex, race, education, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, alcohol use, and CRIC clinical center
  4. Model 3 is adjusted for age, sex, race, education, CRIC clinical center, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, alcohol use, and estimated glomerular filtration rate