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Table 2 Review of the literature (1955–2015) of emphysematous cholecystitis with association with diabetes mellitus or dialysis

From: Emphysematous cholecystitis presenting as gas-forming liver abscess and pneumoperitoneum in a dialysis patient: a case report and review of the literature

Number Age Gender Cormobilities Diabetes GB stone Operation/survival Bacteria source/Concurrent disease/Causative agents other than bacteria Author (year)
1 65 F CAD Yes PTGBD & liver abscess drainge/Yes B/C: Clostridium perfringen/Liver abscess,hemolysis/ - Cochrane. et al. (2015) [4]
PAD
Previous acute pancreatitis
2 85 M CAD Yes Yes/Yes Bi/C: Clostridium perfringens/-/ - Mirrakhimov et al. (2014) [20]
3 77 F Gastric CA Yes Yes/Yes -/-/Chemotherapeutic agents Kuroda et al. (2013) [21]
Arterial sclerosis
4 73 M Nephropathy Schizophrenia Yes Yes/Yes Bi/C: negative/Escherichia Coli related APN/- Ogawa et al. (2012) [22]
5 11 M Obesity Yes (type1) 1D Yes (Lc)/Yes Bi/C: Enterococcus P/C: Escherichia Coli/Secondary appendicitis/ - Pal et al. (2011) [23]
6 82 F SAH HG while admission (FBG:279mg/dL) Yes/Yes Bi/C: Clostridium species/Subarachnoidal hemorrhage/ - Uesaka et al. (2009) [24]
7 65 M Hypertension Yes multiple GB stones Yes (subtotal Ce & Co) /Yes Bi/C:toxin A of Clostridium difficile and Escherichia Coli -/ - Theodossis et al. (2008) [25]
8 87 F Bedridden state Yes PTGBD/- Bi/C & B/C & abdomen soft tissue culture: Clostridium difficile/Renal failure; myonecrosis/- Safioleas et al. (2007) [26]
9 32 M   Yes Yes (Ce)/No Bi/C: Escherichia Coli & Clostridium Welchii; Femeral tissue culture: Escherichia Coli/Myonecrosis- Safioleas et al. (2007) [26]
10 70 M Heart disease Hyperlipidemia Yes Multiple small GB stones Yes (Ce)/Yes Bi/C: Clostridium perfringens-/ - Shresth et al. (2007) [27]
11 68 M Hypertension CAD Type 1 Yes (Ce)/Yes B/C: Clostridium perfringens and Corynebacteria-/ - Bernstein et al. (2007) [28]
12 64 F Hypertension Yes Yes Yes (Ce)/Yes B/C: Salmonella derby Bi/C: Negative-/ - Moanna et al. (2006) [11]
Hypothyroidism
Anemia
13 62 M Alcoholism Yes Yes (Ce)/Yes Bi/C: Klebsiella pneumonia-/ - Prieto Fernández et al. (2004) [29]
Atrial fribrillation
14 62 M Alcoholism Yes Yes (Ce)/Yes Bi/C: Klebsiella pneumonia-/ Prieto Fernández et al. (2004) [29]
Overweight    
Atrial fribrillation
15 42 M Recurrent UTI Yes Yes Yes (Ce)/Yes U/C & Bi/C : Negative /Emphysematous pyelonephritis/- Bhansali et al. (2004) [30]
16 55 M Hypertension Yes Yes -/Yes N/A Chiu et al. (2004) [31]
17 70 M N/A Yes Yes (Mirizzi syndrome) Yes (Ce)/Yes N/A Ozkan et al. (2003) [32]
18 66 F Gastric CA post OP Yes Yes (PTGBD; Ce and Cd) /Yes Bi/C: Clostridium perfingens & E. coli/pneumobilia/- Ohtani et al. (1996) [33]
Breast CA post OP
19 77 M Yes N/A N/A /Liver abscess- Matsura et al. (1995) [34]
20 66 M Yes Yes Yes (Ce)/Yes N/A-/ - Carvalho et al. (1965) [35]
21 68 M Yes N/A -/N/A - /-/ - Carvalho et al. (1965) [35]
  1. M male, F female, CA cancer, PAD peripheral arterial disease, CAD coronary artery disease, N/A unkown, −: none, SAH subarachnoidal hemorrhage, ESRD end-stage renal disease, HUS hemolytic-uremic syndrome, OP operation, CAPD continous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, HG hyperglycemia, FBG fasting blood glucose, GB gallbladder, Ce cholecystectomy, Co cholecystostomy, Cd choledochotomy, PTGBD percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage, Lo laparotomy, Lc laparoscopy, Bi/C bile culture, B/C blood culture, S/C stool culture, P/C peritoneal fluid culture, APN acute pylonephritis, UGIB upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding
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