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Table 3 Factors associated with Proteinuria (n = 240)

From: Renal abnormalities among HIV infected children at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH)—Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Variable n Proteinuria present n (%) P value
Age (years)
 1 up to 5 63 4 (6.1)  
 5 up to 10 91 2 (2.1)  
 10 and above 86 11 (13.8) 0.012
Sex
 Male 133 9 (6.8)  
 Female 107 8 (7.5) 0.831
Use of ART
 Yes 119 16 (7.3)  
 No 21 1 (4.8) 1.000
CD4 percent
  < 25 % 64 10 (15.6)  
  ≥ 25 % 176 7 (4.0) 0.004
Haematuria
 Present 10 1 (10.0)  
 Absent 230 16 (7.0) 0.527a
BMI Z –score
 Median- -1SD 164 11 (6.7)  
  < -1 SD 76 6 (7.9) 0.739
Renal echogenicityb
 Normal 93 6 (10.0)  
 Increased 60 9 (9.7) 1.0
  1. aFischer’s exact test, bn = 153