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Table 2 EQ-5D total score by socio-demographic and clinical variables (n = 267)

From: Factors affecting quality of life in patients on haemodialysis: a cross-sectional study from Palestine

Variable Frequency (%) N = 267 EQ-5D index score P-value
Mean ± SD Median [interquartile range]
Age category     
  < 30 34 (12.7) 0.69 ± 0.28 0.79 [0.47–0.88] 0.001a
 30–60 136 (50.9) 0.44 ± 0.43 0.55 [0.18–0.77]
  > 60 97 (36.3) 0.17 ± 0.40 0.15 [0.13–0.56]
Gender     
 Male 139 (52.1) 0.46 ± 0.41 0.85 [0.22–0.80] 0.001b
 Female 128 (47.9) 0.28 ± 0.45 0.21 [0.04–0.73]
BMIc     
 Underweight 24 (9.0) 0.57 ± 0.42 0.69 [0.38–0.86] 0.047a
 Normal 97 (36.3) 0.41 ± 0.42 0.46 [0.10–0.78]
 Overweight 72 (27) 0.36 ± 0.45 0.43 [0.01–0.75]
 Obese 63 (23.6) 0.29 ± 0.43 0.26 [0.03–0.73]
Education     
 No formal education 40 (15.0) 0.04 ± 0.41 0.06 [−0.21–0.22] <0.001a
 Primary 71 (26.6) 0.36 ± 0.42 0.32 [0.08–0.74]
 Secondary 102 (38.2) 0.45 ± 0.42 0.55 [0.16–0.79]
 Graduated 54 (20.2) 0.50 ± 0.40 0.67 [0.23–0.84]
Household income (month)     
 High (more than 1000 JDd) 10 (3.7) 0.34 ± 0.48 0.28 [0.12–0.84] 0.109a
 Moderate (400–1000 JD) 90 (33.7) 0.45 ± 0.43 0.64 [0.15–0.84]
 Low (less than 400 JD) 167 (62.5) 0.33 ± 0.44 0.36 [0.03–0.72]
Residency     0.004a
 Palestinian refugee camps 22 (8.2) 0.20 ± 0.39 0.15 [0.02–0.52]
 Village 161 (60.3) 0.44 ± 0.44 0.58 [0.15–0.78]
 City 84 (31.5) 0.29 ± 0.44 0.26 [0.02–0.73]
Living status     
 Alone 18 (6.7) 0.31 ± 0.37 0.28 [0.10–0.67] 0.347b
 With family 249 (93.3) 0.38 ± 0.44 0.43 [0.07–0.77]  
Marital status     
 Single, divorced, widowed 79 (29.6) 0.42 ± 0.44 0.48 [0.12–0.79] 0.171b
 Married 188 (70.4) 0.35 ± 0.44 0.36 [0.07–0.75]
Occupation     
 Employed 35 (13.1) 0.51 ± 0.38 0.66 [0.21–0.88] 0.041b
 Unemployed 232 (86.9) 0.35 ± 0.44 0.38 [0.06–0.75]
Smoking     
 Non-smoker 227 (85) 0.36 ± 0.44 0.36 [0.04–0.76] 0.156a
 Light smoker 19 (7.1) 0.49 ± 0.48 0.64 [0.14–0.88]
 Moderate smoker 17 (6.4) 0.53 ± 0.38 0.66 [0.28–0.78]
 Heavy smoker 4 (1.5) 0.15 ± 0.46 0.10 [0.27–0.61]
Dialysis session duration (hours)     
  < 4 h 198 (74.2) 0.37 ± 0.45 0.41 [0.05–0.77] 0.859b
  ≥ 4 h 69 (25.8) 0.39 ± 0.42 0.41 [0.14–0.73]
Dialysis vintage (years)     
  < 4 177 (66.3) 0.37 ± 0.44 0.39 [0.08–0.76] 0.806b
  ≥ 4 90 (33.7) 0.38 ± 0.44 0.47 [0.04–0.77]
Transplantation     
 Yes 26 (9.7) 0.52 ± 0.42 0.66 [0.33–0.84] 0.055b
 No 241 (90.3) 0.36 ± 0.44 0.35 [0.05–0.75]
Total chronic co-morbid diseases     
 None 26 (9.7) 0.77 ± 0.29 0.81 [0.69–1.00] <0.001a
 1 62 (23.2) 0.56 ± 0.39 0.69 [0.30–0.84]
 2 63 (23.6) 0.41 ± 0.34 0.38 [0.18–0.73]
  ≥ 3 116 (43.4) 0.16 ± 0.43 0.15 [0.17–0.52]
Chronic medications     
  < 4 drugs/day 45 (16.9) 0.53 ± 0.37 0.67 [0.22–0.80] 0.010b
  ≥ 4 drugs/day 222 (83.1) 0.34 ± 0.44 0.33 [0.02–0.74]
  1. Abbreviations: EQ-5D European Quality of Life scale 5 dimensions, JD Jordanian Dinar, BMI body mass index
  2. aStatistical significance of differences calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis test
  3. bStatistical significance of differences calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test
  4. cData were missing from 11 patients
  5. d1 Jordanian Dinar (JD) equals 1.41 US Dollar