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Table 3 EQ-VAS by socio-demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Factors affecting quality of life in patients on haemodialysis: a cross-sectional study from Palestine

Variable EQ-VAS P-value
Mean ± SD Median [interquartile range]
Age category    
  < 30 59.95 ± 21.53 60 [50–80] 0.010a
 30–60 60.28 ± 21.66 60 [50–75]
  > 60 51.46 ± 23.20 50 [30–70]
Gender    
 Male 61.26 ± 19.94 60 [50–80] 0.002b
 Female 52.41 ± 24.28 50 [40–70]
BMIc    
 Underweight 66.13 ± 16.44 65 [50–80] 0.198a
 Normal 55.98 ± 21.92 60 [45–70]
 Overweight 55.31 ± 24.68 50 [40–70]
 Obese 58.25 ± 20.81 50 [45–70]
Smoking    
 Non smoker 55.96 ± 22.63 50 [45–70] 0.294a
 Light smoker 64.47 ± 21.07 70 [50–80]
 Moderate smoker 63.24 ± 22.29 60 [50–80]
 Heavy smoker 55.00 ± 20.82 55 [35–75]
Education level    
 No formal education 50.63 ± 23.62 50 [40–70] 0.111a
 Primary 54.72 ± 24.20 50 [40–70]
 Secondary 59.79 ± 20.87 60 [50–70]
 Graduated 59.54 ± 21.77 63 [50–80]
Household income (month)    
 High (more than 1000 JDd) 58.50 ± 20.00 55 [45–80] 0.968a
 Moderate (400–1000 JD) 56.63 ± 22.05 58 [49–70]
 Low (less than 400 JD) 57.14 ± 23.03 50 [50–72]
Residency    
 Palestinian refugee camps 62.5 ± 21.92 55 [50–80] 0.145a
 Village 58.25 ± 21.99 60 [50–74]
 City 53.21 ± 23.38 50 [40–70]
Living statues    
 Alone 57.50 ± 21.30 60 [50–70] 0.761b
 With family 56.98 ± 22.65 50 [48–72]
Marital status    
 Single, divorced, widowed 55.78 ± 21.84 50 [50–70] 0.608b
 Married 57.54 ± 22.85 60 [50–71]
Occupation    
 Employed 58.57 ± 21.54 60 [45–75] 0.509b
 Unemployed 56.78 ± 22.71 50 [50–70]
Dialysis session duration (hours)    
  < 4 h 59.16 ± 51.11 50 [40–70] 0.163b
  ≥ 4 h 60.01 ± 22.13 60 [50–74]
Dialysis vintage (years)    
  < 4 55.86 ± 22.45 50 [50–70] 0.275b
  ≥ 4 66.30 ± 71.33 60 [49–80]
Transplantation    
 Yes 62.58 ± 19.54 68 [50–76] 0.212b
 No 59.04 ± 47.35 50 [45–70]
Total chronic co-morbid diseases    
 None 63.15 ± 21.53 60 [50–80] 0.001a
 1 62.82 ± 21.75 63 [50–80]
 2 59.68 ± 21.04 65 [50–80]
  ≥ 3 56.53 ± 64.48 50 [40–70]
Chronic medications    
  < 4 drugs/day 63.56 ± 19.96 60 [50–80] 0.042b
  ≥ 4 drugs/day 58.54 ± 48.95 50 [40–70]
  1. Abbreviation: EQ-VAS European Quality visual analogue scale, JD Jordanian Dinar, BMI body mass index
  2. aStatistical significance of differences calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis test
  3. bStatistical significance of differences calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test
  4. cData were missing from 11 patients
  5. d1 Jordanian Dinar (JD) equals 1.41 US Dollar