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Table 2 Criteria suggested for the nutritional monitoring of patients with CKD in conservative treatment. Most nutritional variables should be obtained every 3 months

From: Low-protein diets for chronic kidney disease patients: the Italian experience

Category Nutritional variable Additionally useful variables
Biochemical markers Albumin < 3,8 g/dL
Total cholesterol < 100 mg/dL
Transferrin, prealbumin
Inflammatory markers: CRP, Total lymphocyte count or percentage
Body mass BMI < 23 Kg/m2
Unintentional weight-loss > 5 % in 3 months or > 10 % in 6 months
Reduced fat mass < 10 %
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
Muscle mass Reduction of muscle mass by 5 % in 3 months or 10 % in 6 months
Reduced AMA by 10 % as compared to the 50th percentile of the reference population
DEXA (6 months interval)
CT and/or MRI (6 months interval)
Measurements of muscle strength and function (for example handgrip, 6 min walking test)
Nutritional intake Unintentional DPI < 0.6 g/kg/day for at least 2 months
Unintentional DEI < 25 kcal/kg/day for at least 2 months
Appetite assessment questionnaires
Food frequency and dietary recall questionnaires
Measuring energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry
Protein catabolic rate (PCR)
Nutritional scoring system Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)
Malnutrition-inflammation Score (MIS)
 
  1. AMA arm muscle area, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, CT computed tomography, DEI dietary energy intake, DEXA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DPI dietary protein intake, MRI magnetic resonance