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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics according to tertiles of SD of HbA1c and SD of FPG

From: Excessive visit-to-visit glycemic variability independently deteriorates the progression of endothelial and renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Classified by tertile of SD of HbA1c Classified by tertile of SD of FPG
First tertile group (n = 79) Second tertile group (n = 80) Third tertile group (n = 80) P value First tertile group (n = 79) Second tertile group (n = 80) Third tertile group (n = 80) P value
Age (year)a 65.97 ± 5.52 64.36 ± 7.30 64.88 ± 5.74 0.253 65.27 ± 6.09 64.71 ± 6.08 65.23 ± 6.62 0.825
Sex, female (%)b 36 (45.57) 42 (52.50) 47 (58.75) 0.252 41 (50.00) 47 (59.49) 37 (47.44) 0.279
BMI (kg/m2)a 24.43 ± 2.94 23.58 ± 2.71 23.79 ± 2.81 0.147 23.89 ± 2.89 23.44 ± 2.75 24.46 ± 2.79 0.074
SBP (mm Hg)a 152.92 ± 11.85 153.01 ± 8.71 156.02 ± 8.99 0.083 152.35 ± 8.16 153.56 ± 9.70 156.03 ± 11.61 0.061
DBP (mm Hg)a 83.68 ± 9.54 80.81 ± 7.73 82.92 ± 7.08 0.073 83.06 ± 8.34 82.38 ± 7.35 81.96 ± 8.99 0.701
Heart rate (bpm)a 74.82 ± 9.65 76.01 ± 9.09 74.34 ± 8.89 0.498 74.65 ± 10.78 75.30 ± 7.30 75.23 ± 9.31 0.888
Duration of diabetes (years)c 3.00 (2.85, 3.25) 3.00 (2.85, 3.27) 3.00 (2.82, 3.33) 0.905 3.00 (2.90, 3.35) 3.00 (2.69, 3.13) 3.00 (2.93, 3.19) 0.342
Current smoking, n (%)b 8 (10.13) 9 (11.25) 7 (8.75) 0.871 8 (9.76) 8 (10.13) 8 (10.26) 0.994
Current drinking, n (%)b 5 (6.33) 6 (7.50) 5 (6.25) 0.940 7 (8.54) 3 (3.80) 6 (7.69) 0.442
Hypertension history, n (%)b 62 (78.48) 60 (75.00) 65 (81.25) 0.631 64 (78.05) 61 (77.22) 62 (79.49) 0.941
FPG (mmol/L)a 9.80 ± 1.50 9.80 ± 1.57 10.14 ± 1.54 0.269 9.97 ± 1.43 9.99 ± 1.46 9.78 ± 1.72 0.625
HbA1c (%)a 10.01 ± 2.00 10.17 ± 1.53 10.62 ± 1.34 0.061 10.21 ± 1.44 10.19 ± 1.76 10.40 ± 1.77 0.684
TCHO (mmol/L)a 5.10 ± 0.99 5.36 ± 0.96 5.39 ± 1.00 0.127 5.41 ± 0.91 5.27 ± 0.96 5.18 ± 1.08 0.332
TG (mmol/L)a 1.89 ± 1.11 1.61 ± 0.84 1.73 ± 1.01 0.200 1.65 ± 0.88 1.65 ± 0.88 1.92 ± 1.18 0.139
HDL-c (mmol/L)a 1.37 ± 0.45 1.41 ± 0.48 1.38 ± 0.50 0.893 1.38 ± 0.50 1.36 ± 0.41 1.42 ± 0.52 0.768
LDL-c (mmol/L)a 3.35 ± 1.15 3.63 ± 1.11 3.67 ± 1.21 0.167 3.70 ± 1.08 3.58 ± 1.03 3.38 ± 1.33 0.215
Hypoglycemic agents, n (%)b         
 Metformin 73 (92.41) 72 (90.00) 75 (93.75) 0.675 74 (90.24) 74 (93.67) 72 (92.31) 0.720
 Gliclazide 39 (49.37) 34 (42.50) 35 (43.75) 0.653 37 (45.12) 36 (45.57) 35 (44.87) 0.996
 Other sulfonylurea 24 (30.38) 21 (26.25) 22 (27.50) 0.839 22 (26.83) 18 (22.78) 27 (34.62) 0.245
 Thiazolidinedione 7 (8.86) 5 (6.25) 8 (10.00) 0.681 11 (13.41) 4 (5.06) 5 (6.41) 0.120
 Acarbose 15 (18.99) 15 (18.75) 11 (13.75) 0.613 19 (23.17) 12 (15.19) 10 (12.82) 0.189
 Glinide 4 (5.06) 4 (5.00) 3 (3.75) 0.905 5 (6.10) 4 (5.06) 2 (2.56) 0.551
 Insulin 9 (11.39) 7 (8.75) 7 (8.75) 0.809 8 (9.76) 8 (10.13) 7 (8.97) 0.969
Other drugs, n (%)b         
 Antihypertension drug 57 (72.15) 56 (70.00) 63 (79.63) 0.425 58 (70.73) 58 (73.42) 60 (76.92) 0.673
 Aspirin 56 (70.89) 49 (61.25) 43 (53.75) 0.084 51 (62.20) 47 (59.49) 50 (64.10) 0.836
 Statins 11 (13.92) 13 (16.25) 11 (13.75) 0.883 12 (14.63) 12 (15.19) 11 (14.10) 0.982
  1. Results are means ± SDs or medians (25th, 75th percentiles) for continuous variables and numbers (percentages) for categorical variables
  2. SD standard deviation, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TCHO total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  3. acompared using ANOVA with Bonferroni procedure
  4. bcompared using Chi-square test
  5. ccompared using Kruskal-Wallis test