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Table 5 Factors possibly related to change percentage of variables of endothelial and renal function throughout follow-up period in total participants

From: Excessive visit-to-visit glycemic variability independently deteriorates the progression of endothelial and renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Change percentage of FMD (%) Change percentage of NO (%) Change percentage of ET-1 (%) Change percentage of ACR (%) Change percentage of eGFR-Cr (%) Change percentage of eGFR-Cys C (%)
Weight coefficient (95 % CI) P value Weight coefficient (95 % CI) P value Weight coefficient (95 % CI) P value Weight coefficient (95 % CI) P value Weight coefficient (95 % CI) P value Weight coefficient (95 % CI) P value
5A. SDs of HbA1c and FPG are included in independent variables in models
 SD of HbA1c −0.158 (−0.211, −0.105) <0.001 −0.336 (−0.439, −0.234) <0.001 0.125 (0.059, 0.190) <0.001 0.312 (0.242, 0.382) <0.001 −0.334 (−0.394, −0.274) <0.001 −0.369 (−0.435, −0.303) <0.001
 SD of FPG −0.137 (−0.201, −0.072) <0.001 −0.200 (−0.323, −0.077) 0.002 0.132 (0.053, 0.211) 0.001 0.090 (0.004, 0.176) 0.039 −0.356 (−0.658, −0.054) 0.002 −0.453 (−0.832, −0.074) <0.001
 Mean HbA1c −0.298 (−0.580, −0.016) <0.001 -- -- -- -- 0.789 (0.006, 1.572) 0.002 -- -- −0.925 (−1.672, −0.178) 0.022
 Mean FPG -- -- −2.306 (−4.294, −0.318) 0.005 -- -- 1.524 (0.497, 2.551) 0.009 -- -- −1.188 (−2.369, −0.007) 0.049
 Baseline SBP −0.141 (−0.270, −0.012) 0.006 -- -- -- -- -- -- −0.269 (−0.516, −0.022) 0.013 -- --
 Smoking −0.795 (−1.548, −0.042) 0.025 -- -- 0.636 (−0.422, 1.694) 0.047 0.971 (0.009, 1.933) 0.031 −0.466 (−1.755, −0.823) 0.038 −1.335 (−2.248, −0.422) 0.004
 Baseline TCHO -- -- -- -- 0.591 (−0.074, 1.256) 0.041 -- -- -- -- −1.925 (−3.572, −0.278) 0.022
 Baseline LDL-c −0.434 (−0.867, −0.001) 0.049 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
5B. CVs of HbA1c and FPG are included in independent variables in models
 CV of HbA1c −0.165 (−0.219, −0.111) <0.001 −0.363 (−0.470, −0.256) <0.001 0.114 (0.048, 0.179) 0.001 0.306 (0.273, 0.376) <0.001 −0.373 (−0.439, −0.306) <0.001 −0.339 (−0.400, −0.279) <0.001
 CV of FPG −0.141 (−0.206, −0.076) <0.001 −0.162 (−0.293, −0.030) 0.016 0.140 (0.061, 0.219) 0.001 0.092 (0.007, 0.176) 0.034 −0.118 (−0.225, −0.012) 0.029 −0.416 (−0.847, 0.015) 0.041
 Mean HbA1c -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- −0.873 (−1.716, −0.030) 0.034
 Mean FPG -- -- −1.045 (−1.902, −0.178) 0.015 -- -- 1.530 (0.711, 2.348) <0.001 −0.530 (−1.012, −0.048) 0.034 −0.966 (−1.257, −0.675) 0.026
 Baseline SBP −0.065 (−0.127, −0.003) 0.040 -- -- -- -- 0.121 (0.022, 0.219) 0.017 -- -- -- --
 Baseline TCHO −0.511 (−1.019, −0.002) 0.049 -- -- 0.676 (0.045, 1.306) 0.036 -- -- -- -- -- --
 Baseline HDL-c -- -- -- -- −1.139 (−2.229, −0.049) 0.043 -- -- -- -- -- --
  1. Independent variables include age, sex, current smoking, current drinking, duration of diabetes, body mass index, baseline blood press, baseline blood lipids, baseline fasting plasma glucose, baseline HbA1c, mean fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c during follow-up, standard deviation of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c during follow-up, coefficient of variation of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c during follow-up, and episodes of severe hypoglycemia over follow-up period
  2. ACR albumin/creatinine ratio, eGFR-Cr estimated glomerular filtration rate based on creatinine, eGFR-Cys C estimated glomerular filtration rate based on cystatin C, TCHO total cholesterol, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, CV coefficient of variation, SD standard deviation