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Table 1 Patient characteristics by intensity of predialysis nephrology care

From: Predialysis nephrology care and dialysis-related health outcomes among older adults initiating dialysis

Characteristic Overall No visits Low intensitya Moderate intensitya High intensitya P-value
N = 58,014 N = 26,798 N = 12,566 N = 7,690 N = 10,960
Patient Characteristics
 Age (yrs)b 75.7 76.1 75.5 75.2 75.2 <0.001
 Female, % 50.1 52.2 50.7 48.0 46.1 <0.001
Race, %       0.16
  White 75.2 75.3 75.4 74.9 74.9  
  African American 20.9 20.7 20.7 21.7 21.1  
  Other 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.4 4.0  
 Hispanic Ethnicity, % 9.0 9.2 9.6 8.7 8.3 0.002
 Body Mass Index (kg/m2)b 26.0 25.8 25.9 26.4 26.3 <0.001
Geographic Characteristics
 Hospital Densityc 20.0 20.0 21.3 20.6 18.2 <0.001
 Physician Densityd 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2 <0.001
 Urban Residence 84.1 84.5 82.5 82.7 85.9 <0.001
 Median Income < $30,000e 23.1 23.6 24.0 23.3 20.7 <0.001
Region, %       <0.001
  Northeast 14.5 14.4 14.2 14.4 15.1  
  Midwest 25.7 28.6 24.5 23.8 21.4  
  South 38.1 33.5 39.7 41.0 45.2  
  West 20.3 22.2 20.0 19.1 17.1  
Predialysis Healthcare Use
 Primary Care Visitsb 4.2 4.1 4.5 4.5 4.0 <0.001
 Inpatient Daysb 12.8 14.8 14.5 9.9 7.7 <0.001
 Inpatient Admissionsb 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.3 1.2 <0.001
Predialysis Comorbidities, %
 Myocardial Infarction 10.8 13.3 10.7 8.0 6.8 <0.001
 Congestive Heart Failure 57.6 62.1 59.7 53.0 47.2 <0.001
 Cerebrovascular Disease 11.5 12.5 12.4 10.0 9.3 <0.001
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 25.9 29.0 26.3 22.6 20.1 <0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 52.4 50.6 54.4 55.9 52.2 <0.001
 Hypertension 92.8 88.7 95.2 96.9 97.5 <0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease 22.0 23.0 23.7 21.3 18.2 <0.001
 Veteran, % 12.8 10.1 14.0 16.1 15.6 <0.001
  1. aPatients were categorized by intensity of predialysis nephrology care: low intensity care (1–3 nephrology visits), moderate intensity care (4–6 nephrology visits), and high intensity care (>6 nephrology visits)
  2. bMean value
  3. cNumber of hospitals per million persons (1990)
  4. dNumber of physicians per thousand persons (1990)
  5. e1999 data (US dollars)