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Table 1 Number and frequencies of risk factors for CKD outcome prior to CKD or end of study time (total of 53,728 individuals not on PPI and total of 22,734 individuals on PPI)

From: Proton pump inhibitors are associated with increased risk of development of chronic kidney disease

  Not on PPI On PPI p_value
Total Case(CKD) Control Total Case(CKD) Control
53728 14600 39128 22734 4711 18023
Vascular disease (n) 9948 3703 6245 3525 1046 2479 <0.0001
  18.52 % 25.36 % 15.96 % 15.51 % 22.20 % 13.75 %  
COPD (n) 4792 1541 3251 2239 569 1670 <0.0001
  8.92 % 10.55 % 8.31 % 9.85 % 12.08 % 9.27 %  
Cancer (n) 5540 1689 3851 1648 443 1205 <0.0001
  10.31 % 11.57 % 9.84 % 7.25 % 9.40 % 6.69 %  
Diabetes (n) 11410 4515 6895 3976 1206 2770 <0.0001
  21.24 % 30.92 % 17.62 % 17.49 % 25.60 % 15.37 %  
Hypertension (n) 33496 12024 21472 14202 3734 10468 <0.0001
  62.34 % 82.36 % 54.88 % 62.47 % 79.26 % 58.08 %  
GI (n) 7494 1913 5581 12832 2324 10508 <0.0001
  13.95 13.1 14.26 56.44 49.33 58.3  
Black (n) 5404 1067 4337 2315 357 1958 0.5994
  10.06 % 7.31 % 11.08 % 10.18 % 7.58 % 10.86 %  
Female (n) 3340 534 2806 1342 214 1128 0.099
  6.22 % 3.66 % 7.17 % 5.90 % 4.54 % 6.25 %  
Age in years (mean) 56.94 66.9 53.2 56.3 63.88 54.32 <0.0001
(STD) 15.38 11 15.2 13.17 10.9 13  
Time at risk (quarters) (mean) 10.37 6.55 11.8 14.1 10.83 14.95 <0.0001
(STD) 7.66 5.9 7.74 7.1 6.17 7.08