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Table 2 Frequencies of risk factors for mortality outcome prior to end of study time (total of 62,987 individuals not on PPI and total of 36,282 individuals on PPI)

From: Proton pump inhibitors are associated with increased risk of development of chronic kidney disease

  Not on PPI On PPI p_value
Total Case (death) Control Total Case (death) Control  
62987 6897 56090 36282 4861 31421  
Vascular disease (n) 16806 3257 13549 8683 1982 6701 <0.0001
  26.68 % 47.22 % 24.16 % 23.93 % 40.77 % 21.33 %  
COPD (n) 6856 1696 5160 4298 1116 3182 <0.0001
  10.88 % 24.59 % 9.20 % 11.85 % 22.96 % 10.13 %  
Cancer (n) 9220 1954 7266 3749 1073 2676 <0.0001
  14.64 % 28.33 % 12.95 % 10.33 % 22.07 % 9.52 %  
Diabetes (n) 15526 2295 13231 8633 1642 6991 <0.0001
  24.65 % 33.28 % 23.59 % 23.79 % 33.78 % 22.25 %  
Hypertension (n) 42625 5756 36869 26503 4231 22272 <0.0001
  67.67 % 83.46 % 65.73 % 73.05 % 87.04 % 70.88 %  
GI (n) 9274 1263 8011 20141 2227 17914 <0.0001
  14.72 % 18.31 % 14.28 % 55.51 % 45.81 % 57.01 %  
Black (n) 5768 489 5279 3153 362 2791 0.0132
  9.16 % 7.09 % 9.41 % 8.69 % 7.45 % 8.88 %  
Female (n) 3582 122 3460 1855 109 1746 <0.0001
  5.69 % 1.77 % 6.17 % 5.11 % 2.24 % 5.56 %  
Age in years(mean) 59.9 72.87 58.34 61.7 70.28 60.37 <0.0001
(STD) 16.12 11.2 15.9 14.1 11.55 14  
Time at risk (quarters) (mean) 14.13 11.13 14.5 17.3 14.5 17.72 <0.0001
(STD) 7.63 6.11 7.7 6.64 5.8 6.65  
  1. Note: Given p-values are for PPI group differences. For categorical variables, the proportions of patients with the characteristics in two PPI groups were compared using Fisher exact test. We performed a simple t test analysis, with adjustment for unequal variances when appropriate, to compare the means of continuous variables