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Table 1 Summary of populations and interventions in included studies. Data are mean ± SD or median (IQR)

From: Effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on proteinuria and progression of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Kidney disease No. of patients included Intervention group Control group Co-intervention Study duration Baseline eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) Endpoints
Abolghasmi 2011 [24] CKD with resistant hypertension 41 Spironolactone 25–50 mg Placebo multi-drug regime including ACE-I+/−ARB 12 weeks Not available BP, potassium, creatinine, urinary sodium
Ando 2014 [28] CKD with hypertension 314 Eplerenone 50 mg Placebo ACE-I+/−ARB of at least 8 weeks duration 1 year Treatment 67.7 ± 14.3
Control 68.6 ± 13.6
UACR, creatinine, eGFR, urinary L-FABP, 24 h urinary sodium, incidence of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events
Bianchi 2006 [36] Non-diabetic CKD (idiopathic GN) 165 Spironolactone 25 mg ACE-I+/−ARB ACE-I+/−ARB 1 year Treatment 62.4 ± 21.9
Control 62.2 ± 19.0
24 h urinary protein, BP, creatinine, eGFR potassium
Boesby 2011 [29]
(XO)
Non-diabetic CKD 40 Eplerenone 25–50 mg multi-drug regime including ACE-I+/−ARB multi-drug regime including ACE-I+/−ARB 8 weeks 59 ± 26 24 h urinary albumin, BP, potassium, creatinine clearance
Boesby 2013 [30] Diabetic and non-diabetic CKD 26 Eplerenone 25–50 mg ACE-I+/−ARB ACE-I+/−ARB 24 weeks 36 ± 10 cfPWV, AIx, AASI, 24 h urinary albumin
Chrysostomou 2006a [37] Diabetic and non-diabetic CKD 41 Spironolactone 25 mg Placebo as ARB;
Placebo as Spironolactone
ACE-I alone; ACE-I + ARB 3 months Not available 24 h urinary protein, BP, creatinine, creatinine clearance, potassium
Edwards 2009 [23] Non-diabetic CKD with no renovascular diagnosis 112 Spironolactone 25 mg Placebo ACE-I/ARB 36 weeks Treatment 49 ± 12
Control 53 ± 11
LVMI, cfPWV, aortic distensibility, AIx, BP
Epstein 2006+ [38] Diabetic nephropathy 359 Eplerenone 50 mg or 100 mg Placebo ACE-I 12 weeks ACE ± EPL 50
73 (62.1–83.6)
ACE ± EPL 100
75 (62.8–85.9)
Control
74 (60.5–82.2)
UACR, potassium, BP, eGFR
Guney 2009 [25] Non-diabetic CKD 24 Spironolactone 25 mg ACE-I+/−ARB ACE-I+/−ARB 6 months Treatment 63.0 ± 22.71
Control 56.3 ± 35.6
UPCR, urinary TGF-β1, eGFR, creatinine, potassium, BP, aldosterone
Mehdi 2009 [22] Diabetic nephropathy 81 Spironolactone 25 mg Placebo or ARB ACE-I 48 weeks Not available UACR, BP, creatinine clearance, potassium
Nielsen 2012 [26]
(XO)
Diabetes with microalbuminuria 21 Spironolactone 25 mg Placebo ACE-I/ARB 60 days Not available 24 h urinary albumin, BP, GFR, urinary L-FABP, urinary NGAL, urinary KIM-1
Rossing 2005 [39]
(XO)
Diabetic nephropathy 20 Spironolactone 25 mg Placebo ACE-I+/−ARB 8 weeks Not available 24 h urinary albumin, BP, GFR
Saklayen 2008 [43]
(XO)
Diabetic nephropathy 24 Spironolactone 25–50 mg Placebo ACE-I/ARB 3 months Treatment 61.9 ± 23.4
Control 54.4 ± 20.1
BP, creatinine, potassium, UPCR
Schjoedt 2005 [40]
(XO)
Diabetic nephropathy 20 Spironolactone 25 mg Placebo ACE-I+/−ARB 2 months Not available 24 h urinary albumin, BP, GFR
Tylicki 2008 [41]
(XO)
Non-diabetic CKD 18 Spironolactone 25 mg ACE-I + ARB ACE-I + ARB 8 weeks 107.8 (93–140.9) 24 h urinary protein, BP, creatinine, potassium, PRA, urinary NAG, urinary PIIINP
Tylicki 2012 [31]
(XO)
Non-diabetic CKD 18 Eplerenone 50 mg ARB + Aliskiren ARB 8 weeks Not available UACR, BP, creatinine clearance, potassium
van den Meiracker 2006 [42] Diabetic nephropathy 53 Spironolactone 25–50 mg Placebo ACE-I/ARB 1 year Treatment 93.1 ± 45
Control 66.3 ± 35.1
24 h urinary protein, BP, creatinine, eGFR, potassium
Wang 2013 [34] Diabetic and non-diabetic CKD 208 Spironolactone 20 mg multi-drug regime including ACE-I+/−ARB multi-drug regime including ACE-I+/−ARB 16 weeks Treatment 65.8 ± 22.2
Control 66.5 ± 24.3
24 h urinary protein, creatinine, potassium, eGFR, BP, aldosterone
Ziaee 2013 [27] Diabetes with microalbuminuria 60 Spironolactone 25 mg ACE-I ACE-I 12 weeks Treatment 79.8 ± 18
Control 82.5 ± 19.1
UACR, BP, potassium, eGFR
  1. UACR urine albumin:creatinine ratio, UPCR urine protein:creatinine ratio, ACE-I angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CKD chronic kidney disease, NG glomerulonephritis, L-FABP liver-type fatty acid binding protein, XO crossover study design, cfPWV carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, AIx augmentation index, AASI ambulatory arterial stiffness index, LVMI left ventricular mass index, TGF-β1 transforming growth factor-β1, NGAL neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin, KIM-1 kidney injury molecule-1, PRA plasma renin activity, NAG n-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, PIIINP amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen, athis study had 4 arms +this study had 3 arms