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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the population, on the basis of the first diet

From: Diet as a system: an observational study investigating a multi-choice system of moderately restricted low-protein diets

First diet Vegan supplemented With protein- free food Other All cases p Among groups
n 215 159 75 449  
Males (%) 144 (67.0%) 98 (61.6%) 34 (45.3%) 276 (61.5%) 0.004
Females (%) 71 (33.0%) 61 (38.4%) 41 (54.7%) 173 (38.5%)
Age: median (min-max) 65 (19–86) 76 (26–97) 71 (23–88) 70 (19–97) <0.001
Age over 65 (%) 100 (46.5%) 132 (83%) 42 (56%) 274 (61%) <0.001
Age over 80 (%) 15 (7.0%) 44 (27.7%) 14 (18.7%) 73 (16.3%) <0.001
Charlson: median (min-max) 6 (2–12) 8 (2–13) 6 (2–12) 7 (2–13) <0.001
Charlson > =7 (%) 91 (42.3%) 118 (74.2%) 37 (49.3%) 246 (54.8%) <0.001
Charlson > =10 (%) 17 (7.9%) 42 (26.4%) 12 (16.0%) 71 (15.8%) <0.001
Diabetes (%) 59 (27.4%) 70 (44%) 20 (26.7%) 149 (33.2%) 0.001
Cardiopathy (%) 79 (36.7%) 100 (62.9%) 29 (38.7%) 208 (46.3%) <0.001
Neoplasia (%) 41 (19.1%) 33 (20.8%) 23 (30.7%) 97 (21.6%) 0.104
sCreatinine (mg/dL) median (min-max) 3.05 (0.6–16) 2.65 (1.0–7) 2.49 (0.6–6.7) 2.8 (0.6–16) <0.001
eGFR-EPI (mL/min) median (min-max) 18.9 (3–126) 20.5 (6.6–73) 22.5 (5.7–127) 20.0 (3–127) 0.014
GFR <15 mL/min at enrolment n (%) 80 (37.6%) 32 (20.1%) 13 (17.3%) 125 (28%) <0.001
GFR <10 mL/min at enrolment n (%) 29 (13.6%) 10 (6.3%) 5 (6.7%) 44 (9.8%) 0.038
Proteinuria (g/day)
median (min-max)
1.2 (0.1–10) 0.3 (0.1–7) 0.9 (0.1–11) 0.8 (0.1–11) <0.001
Proteinuria > = 1 g/day (%) 125 (58.7%) 41 (26.1%) 36 (48.0%) 202 (45.4%) <0.001
Proteinuria > = 3 g/day (%) 50 (23.5%) 18 (11.5%) 14 (18.7%) 82 (18.4%) 0.013
Glomerulonephritis-systemic disease (%) 67 (31.2%) 12 (7.5%) 16 (21.3%) 95 (21.2%) <0.001
Nephroangiosclerosis and/or diabetes (%) 100 (46.5%) 128 (80.5%) 37 (49.3%) 265 (59.0%) <0.001
ADPKD (%) 13 (6.0%) 4 (2.5%) 7 (9.3%) 24 (5.3%) 0.079
  1. Charlson Charlson’s comorbidity index, E-GFR EPI GFR according to the CKD-EPI equation, ADPKD autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease