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Table 4 Characteristics of the patients who died, stratified on the basis of the first diet

From: Diet as a system: an observational study investigating a multi-choice system of moderately restricted low-protein diets

First diet Vegan supplemented With protein- free food Other All cases p Among groups
n 35 59 6 100  
Males/Females (%) 29 (82.9%)
6 (17.1%)
38 (64.4%)
21 (35.6%)
5 (83.3%)
1 (16.7%)
72 (72.0%)
28 (28.0%)
0.128
Age at start of the diet median (min-max) 71 78 70 74 0.003
Charlson index median (min max) 9 (6–12) 9 (5–12) 8 (2–11) 9 (2–12) 0.794
Charlson > =7 (%) 30 (85.7%) 53 (89.8%) 4 (66.7%) 87 (87.0%) 0.264
Charlson > =10 (%) 9 (25.7%) 19 (32.2%) 2 (33.3%) 30 (30.0%) 0.789
Diabetes (%) 17 (48.6%) 30 (50.8%) 3 (50.0%) 50 (50.0%) 0.977
Cardiopathy (%) 27 (77.1%) 49 (83.1%) 4 (66.7%) 80 (80.0%) 0.552
Neoplasia (%) 9 (25.7%) 12 (20.3%) 1 (16.7%) 22 (22.0%) 0.788
s Creatinine (mg/dL) median, (min-max) 3.0 1.6–5 2.5 1.1–5.9 3.65 2.6–4.3 2.90 1.1–5.9 0.002
eGFR-EPI (mL/min) median, (min-max) 18.9 10.9–44.5 20.8 7.7–73.1 16.0 10.3–17.7 20.0 7.7–73.1 0.022
Proteinuria (g/day) median, (min-max) 0.5 0.1–4.6 0.2 0.1–6.3 0.2 0.1–1.0 0.35 0.1–6.3 0.111
Proteinuria > = 1 g/day (%) 12 (34.3%) 13 (22.8%) 1 (16.7%) 26 (26.0%) 0.410
Glomerulonephritis-systemic disease (%) 3 (8.6%) 1 (1.7%) 0 4 (4%) 0.226
Nephroangiosclerosis and/or diabetes (%) 30 (85.7%) 52 (88.1%) 4 (66.7%) 86 (86%) 0.352
Main causes of death
 Cardiovascular (%) 16 (45.7%) 29 (49.1%) 2 (33.3%) 47 (47%) 0.590
 Neoplasia (%) 4 (11.4%) 3 (5.1%) 1 (16.7%) 8 (8%)
 Lung disease (%) 1 (2.8%) 4 (6.7%) 0 5 (5%)
 Infection (%) 4 (11.4%) 5 (8.5%) 0 9 (9%)
 Other (%) 6 (17.1%) 5 (8.5%) 2 (33.3%) 13 (13%)
 Unknown (%) 4 (11.4%) 13 (22.1%) 1 (16.7%) 18 (18%)