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Table 5 Characteristics of the patients who started dialysis (listed on the basis of the first diet)

From: Diet as a system: an observational study investigating a multi-choice system of moderately restricted low-protein diets

First diet Vegan supplemented With protein- free food Other All cases p Among groups
n 83 12 10 105  
Males/Females (%) 52 (62.7%)
31 (37.3%)
8 (66.7%)
4 (33.3%)
4 (40.0%)
6 (60.0%)
64 (61.0%)
41 (39.0%)
0.348
Age at start of diet: median (min max) 63 (23–86) 72 (59–86) 69.5 (29–83) 64 (23–86) 0.009
Age over 65 (%) 32 (38.6%) 9 (75.0%) 6 (60.0%) 47 (44.8%) 0.036
Age over 80 (%) 4 (4.8%) 2 (16.7%) 1 (10.0%) 7 (6.7%) 0.278
Charlson index median (min max) 6 (2–11) 7.5 (5–12) 8 (4–10) 6 (2–12) 0.001
Charlson > =7 (%) 30 (36.1%) 9 (75.0%) 8 (80.0%) 47 (44.8%) 0.003
Charlson > =10 (%) 5 (6.0%) 3 (25.0%) 1 (10.0%) 9 (8.6%) 0.089
Diabetes (%) 23 (27.7%) 7 (58.3%) 4 (40.0%) 34 (32.4%) 0.091
Cardiopathy (%) 26 (31.3%) 6 (50.0%) 6 (60.0%) 38 (36.2%) 0.117
Neoplasia (%) 16 (19.3%) 2 (16.7%) 6 (60.0%) 24 (22.9%) 0.013
s Creatinine (mg/dL) median, (min-max) 4.5 (1.5–16.0) 3.3 (2.3–6.4) 3.6 (2.5–6.7) 4.2 (1.5–16.0) 0.492
eGFR-EPI (mL/min) median, (min-max) 12.8 (3.0–44.6) 16.2 (7.7–25.5) 15.1 (5.7–19.7) 13.2 (3.0–44.6) 0.885
Proteinuria (g/day) median, (min-max) 1.5 (0.1–9) 1.4 (0.7–5.7) 3.3 (0.1–11) 1.5 (0.1–11) 0.407
Proteinuria > =1 g/day (%) 55 (67.9%) 8 (66.7%) 7 (70.0%) 70 (68.0%) 0.986
Proteinuria > =3 g/day (%) 21 (25.9%) 4 (33.3%) 5 (50.0%) 30 (29.1%) 0.270
Glomerulonephritis-systemic disease (%) 26 (31.3%) 2 (16.7%) 2 (20.0%) 30 (28.6%) 0.472
Nephroangiosclerosis and/or diabetes (%) 37 (44.6%) 10 (83.3%) 5 (50.0%) 52 (49.5%) 0.043
ADPKD (%) 7 (8.4%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (20.0%) 9 (8.6%) 0.247
Type of dialysis (% HD) 71 (85.5%) 10 (83.3%) 10 (100%) 91 (86.6%) 0.457
dialysis in emergency n (%) 3 (3.6%) 0 0 3 (2.8%) 0.630