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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Urinary exosomal activating transcriptional factor 3 as the early diagnostic biomarker for sepsis-induced acute kidney injury

Characteristics Healthy volunteers (n = 8) Sepsis-AKI (n = 79) Sepsis-non-AKI (n = 60) p-value
Mean age, yr (SD) 43.1 (10.2) 63.3 (13.3) 51.5 (18.5) <0.0001
Men (%) 3 (37.5) 52 (65.8) 28 (46.7) 0.04
Baseline Scr (mg/dL) 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.3 0.10
All-time point Scr (mg/dL)     
 Median (P25-P75) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 3.2 (1.7-4.3) 1.0 (0.8-1.3) <0.0001
All-time point MDRD Scr-eGFR     
  (mL/min/1.73 m2) 109.3 33.5 64.8 <0.0001
 Median (P25-P75) (92.1-128.3) (19.8-42.2) (48.2-70.2)  
APACHE II score (SD) - 22 (1.9) 18 (6.4) <0.0001
Principle comorbidities (%)     
 Hypertension - 26 (32.9) 22 (36.7) 0.77
 Cardiovascular disease - 10 (12.7) 6 (10.0) 0.82
 COPD - 7 (8.9) 1 (1.7) 0.15
 No known underlying disease - 26 (32.9) 18 (30.0) 0.86
Causes of sepsis     
 Pneumonia - 36 (45.6) 22 (36.7) 0.38
 Urinary tract infection - 28 (35.4) 17 (28.3) 0.48
 Intra-abdominal infection - 7 (8.9) 12 (20.0) 0.10
 Soft tissue infection - 0 (0) 7 (11.7) 0.006
 Tropical infection - 8 (10.1) 2 (3.3) 0.23
Outcomes     
 Severe sepsis (%) - 43 (54.4) 18 (30.0) 0.007
 Intensive care unit admission (%) - 31 (39.2) 13 (21.7) 0.04
 In-hospital length of stay, days (SD) - 63 (15.6) 30 (11.9) <0.0001
 Dialysis (%) - 25 (31.6) 0 (0) <0.0001
 Mortality (%) - 9 (11.4) 4 (6.7) 0.52
AKI severity (%)     
 AKIN 1 - 38 (48.1) 0 <0.0001
 AKIN 2 - 30 (38.0) 0 <0.0001
 AKIN 3 - 28 (35.4) 0 <0.0001
  1. AKI, acute kidney injury; AKIN, Acute Kidney Injury Network; APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MDRD Scr-eGFR, GFR estimated from Scr using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation; P25-P75, 25th percentile to 75th percentile; Scr, serum creatinine