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Table 1 Baseline data in all patients in the study population, in patients with no kidney disease (NKD), and in patients with Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Variables are compared between NKD and AKI

From: Incidence, aetiology and outcome of community-acquired acute kidney injury in medical admissions in Malawi

Demographic Variable All patients N = 892 No Kidney Disease (NKD) N = 704 Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) N = 153 P value
Age (median; IQR) 37 (30–52) 36 (28–50) 41 (32–58) 0 · 0008
Male sex 500 (56 · 1%) 388 (55 · 1%) 92 (60 · 1%) 0 · 257
Medical History
 HIV 391 (43 · 8%) 281 (39 · 9%) 90 (58 · 8%) <0 · 0001
 HTN 109 (12 · 2%) 78 (11 · 1%) 24 (15 · 7%) 0 · 112
 CVDa 52 (5 · 8%) 39 (5 · 6%) 12 (7 · 8%) 0 · 277
 TB 43 (4 · 8%) 28 (4 · 0%) 15 (9 · 8%) 0 · 003
 DM 34 (3 · 8%) 20 (2 · 9%) 10 (6 · 5%) 0 · 025
 Liver Disease 8 (0 · 9%) 5 (0 · 7%) 3 (2 · 0%) 0 · 145
 Malignancy 7 (0 · 8%) 3 (0 · 4%) 3 (2 · 0%) 0 · 48
 Known CKD 5 (0 · 6%) 0 (0%) 2 (1 · 3%) 0 · 027
Medications
 NSAID 339 (38 · 1%) 259 (37 · 0%) 66 (43 · 1%) 0 · 153
 TDF ART 311 (34 · 9%) 234 (33 · 2%) 66 (43 · 1%) 0 · 02
 Diuretic 144 (16 · 2%) 109 (15 · 5%) 26 (17 · 0%) 0 · 652
 ACEi or ARB 31 (3 · 5%) 19 (2 · 7%) 6 (3 · 9%) 0 · 419
 Non TDF ART 13 (1 · 5%) 3 (0 · 4%) 6 (3 · 9%) 0 · 001
Admission Diagnosis
 LRTI 215 (24 · 1%) 196 (27 · 8%) 16 (10 · 4%) <0 · 0001
 Sepsisb unclear source 104 (11 · 6%) 81 (11 · 5%) 21 (13 · 7%) 0 · 442
 GE 79 (8 · 9%) 46 (6 · 5%) 30 (19 · 6%) <0 · 0001
 Meningitis 66 (7 · 4%) 61 (8 · 7%) 5 (3 · 3%) 0 · 023
 Stroke 63 (7 · 1%) 51 (7 · 2%) 8 (5 · 2%) 0 · 37
 Heart Failure 62 (7 · 0%) 45 (6 · 4%) 13 (8 · 5%) 0 · 348
 Symptomatic Anaemia 60 (6 · 7%) 45 (6 · 4%) 11 (7 · 2%) 0 · 718
 TB 43 (4 · 8%) 28 (4 · 0%) 15 (9 · 8%) 0 · 003
 Malaria 33 (3 · 7%) 21 (3 · 0%) 9 (5 · 9%) 0 · 077
 Liver failure 26 (2 · 9%) 14 (2 · 0%) 11 (7 · 2%) 0 · 001
 Disseminated malignancy 17 (1 · 9%) 14 (2 · 0%) 3 (2 · 0%) 0 · 982
 Other 124 (13 · 9%) 102 (14 · 5%) 11 (7 · 2%) 0 · 45
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, HTN hypertension, CVD cardiovascular disease, TB tuberculosis, DM diabetes mellitus CKD chronic kidney disease, NSAID non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, TDF ART tenofovir based antiretroviral therapy, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, LRTI lower respiratory tract infection (including pleural effusion), GE gastroenteritis
  2. aischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease
  3. bclinical diagnosis