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Table 2 Primary Causes of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) in patients with any stage of AKI, stage 1 or 2 AKI, and stage 3 AKI

From: Incidence, aetiology and outcome of community-acquired acute kidney injury in medical admissions in Malawi

Primary cause of AKI AKI all (n = 153) AKI stage 1 or 2 (n = 60) AKI stage 3 (n = 93)
Sepsis and hypoperfusion 133 (86 · 9%) 55 (91 · 7%) 78 (83 · 9%)
 GEa 29 (19 · 0%) 12 (20 · 0%) 17 (18 · 3%)
 TB 18 (11 · 8%) 5 (8 · 3%) 13 (14 · 0%)
 Heart failure 16 (10 · 5%) 10 (16 · 7%) 6 (6 · 5%)
 Malaria 12 (7 · 8%) 4 (6 · 7%) 8 (8 · 6%)
 Dehydration of other cause 12 (7 · 8%) 6 (10 · 0%) 6 (6 · 5%)
 LRTI 10 (6 · 5%) 6 (10 · 0%) 4 (4 · 3%)
 Sepsis of unclear source 9 (5 · 9%) 2 (3 · 3%) 7 (7 · 5%)
 Liver Failure 8 (5 · 2%) 3 (5 · 0%) 5 (5 · 4%)
 Meningitis 7 (4 · 6%) 4 (6 · 7%) 3 (3 · 2%)
 Sepsis of other known source 4 (2 · 6%) 1 (1 · 7%) 3 (3 · 2%)
 UTI 1 (0 · 7%) 0 (0 · 0%) 1 (1 · 1%)
 Other 7 (4 · 6%) 2 (3 · 3%) 5 (5 · 4%)
Toxin (as primary cause) 5 (3 · 3%) 3 (5 · 0%) 2 (2 · 1%)
 NSAID 4 (2 · 6%) 3 (5 · 0%) 1 (1 · 1%)
 ACEi or ARB 1 (0 · 7%) 0 (0 · 0%) 1 (1 · 1%)
Urinary tract Obstruction 7 (4 · 6%) 1 (1 · 6%) 6 (6 · 5%)
 Prostate disease 2 (1 · 3%) 0 (0 · 0%) 2 (2 · 2%)
 Cervical malignancy 1 (0 · 7%) 0 (0 · 0%) 1 (1 · 1%)
 Bladder Malignancy 1 (0 · 7%) 0 (0 · 0%) 1 (1 · 1%)
 Unclear/other 3 (2 · 0%) 1 (1 · 7%) 2 (2 · 2%)
Parenchymal Kidney disease 4 (2 · 6%) 0 (0 · 0%) 4 (4 · 3%)
 Acute GN 3 (2 · 0%) 0 (0 · 0%) 3 (3 · 3%)
 TIN (presumed) 1 (0 · 7%) 0 (0 · 0%) 1 (1 · 1%)
Unclear 4 (2 · 6%) 1 (1 · 7%) 3 (3 · 2%)
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, GE gastroenteritis, TB tuberculosis, LRTI lower respiratory tract infection (including pleural effusion), UTI urinary tract infection, NSAID non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, TDF ART tenofovir based antiretroviral therapy, GN glomerulonephritis, TIN tubulointerstitial nephritis
  2. aincluding typhoid and non-typhoidal salmonella