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Table 2 Bivariate associations between selected predictors and end-of-life care intensity measures among Taiwanese CKD decedents dying in hospitals, 2002–2012

From: Costs of care at the end of life among elderly patients with chronic kidney disease: patterns and predictors in a nationwide cohort study

Characteristics Expenses (NT$a), Mean (SD) p-valueb Surgical Interventions, % p-valuec ICU Use, % p-valuec Mechanical Ventilation, % p-valuec Resuscitation, % p-valuec Dialysis, % p-valuec
(n = 65,124) (n = 65,124) (n = 2072) (n = 2072) (n = 2072) (n = 2072)
 Overall 332,422 (413,204) - 40.9% - 40.2% - 45.3% - 14.7% - 42.0% -
 Age at death
  60–70 346,843 (438,247) <0.001 45.9% <0.001 40.4% 0.16 46.5% 0.80 20.3% <0.001 48.4% <0.001
  70–80 340,080 (412,106) 43.5% 42.7% 45.5% 15.6% 47.5%
  80+ 319,024 (401,455) 36.3% 38.1% 44.6% 11.7% 35.2%
 Sex
  Male 328,808 (411,335) 0.01 39.6% <0.001 39.3% 0.34 44.5% 0.43 14.8% 0.82 39.1% 0.003
  Female 336,754 (415,398) 42.5% 41.3% 46.2% 14.5% 45.7%
 Insurable monthly earnings
  Below average ($NT7,499) 348,894 (426,698) <0.001 41.2% 0.08 39.7% 0.48 47.1% 0.02 15.4% 0.18 42.9% 0.25
  Average and above 300,096 (383,307) 40.5% 41.3% 41.6% 13.2% 40.3%
 ESRD
  Yes 369,902 (441,971) <0.001 47.7% <0.001 47.8% <0.001 51.2% <0.001 19.8% <0.001 67.5% <0.001
  No 304,312 (387,875) 35.9% 36.3% 40.6% 10.6% 22.0%
 Primary Hospital- Accreditation
  Medical Centers 418,779 (492,098) <0.001 49.9% <0.001 38.5% 0.13 43.6% 0.10 12.3% 0.01 45.0% 0.14
  Regional Hospitals 294,439 (361,834) 41.5% 42.7% 44.3% 14.4% 40.7%
  Local Hospitals 278,099 (353,787) 26.7% 38.0% 49.6% 18.7% 40.1%
 Primary Hospital
  Public 388,234 (434,996) 0.01 41.6% 0.01 38.7% 0.28 42.8% 0.09 15.3% 0.54 40.0% 0.16
  Private 329,489 (401,725) 40.6% 41.1% 46.6% 14.3% 43.2%
 Year of death
  2002 262,495 (329,490) <0.001 40.7% <0.001 -   -   -   -  
  2003 300,027 (377,547) 41.1% -   -   -   -  
  2004 348,311 (437,586) 42.8% -   -   -   -  
  2005 344,680 (422,834) 40.4% 44.9% 0.04 51.3% 0.01 16.3% 0.02 45.2% 0.22
  2006 333,470 (413,808) 40.8% 40.9% 45.5% 18.2% 35.6%
  2007 352,703 (423,098) 42.3% 43.1% 50.7% 17.0% 44.6%
  2008 354,350 (439,043) 42.2% 45.5% 49.3% 16.6% 44.5%
  2009 353,732 (414,014) 43.2% 35.5% 42.1% 15.7% 42.6%
  2010 341,921 (423,078) 40.0% 38.9% 40.2% 13.8% 43.9%
  2011 334,486 (405,408) 39.1% 33.3% 42.8% 10.3% 37.4%
  2012 326,514 (430,010) 37.2% 37.6% 38.4% 8.6% 42.0%
  1. a. NT$ = New Taiwan Dollars; US$1 = NT$32.4
  2. b. p-value of t-test for binary variables and ANOVA for variables with multiple categories
  3. c. p-value of chi-squared test