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Table 1 Biochemical and clinical characteristics of control group and CKD patients

From: Indoxyl sulfate – the uremic toxin linking hemostatic system disturbances with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

Parameter Controls n = 18 CKD n = 51 P value
Sex M/F 7/11 20/31 NS
Age, years 47.4 ± 6.18 53.3 ± 15.5 NS
BMI, kg/m2 25.83 ± 3.45 24.2 ± 3.55 NS
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 117.0 (105.0 – 125.0) 20.6 (5.6 - 127) 0.0001
Creatinine, mg/dL 0.88 (0.34 – 1.18) 3.32 (0.78 – 9.33) 0.0001
Urea, mg/dL 30.03 ± 6.05 118 ± 53.1 0.0001
hs-CRP, μg/ml 0.42 (0.01 – 9.25) 3.38 (0.01 - 94) 0.0079
Neopterin, nmol/L 5.93 (0.41 – 12.9) 32 (5 – 150) 0.0001
Cu/Zn SOD, ng/ml 51 (6 – 78) 62 (30 – 262) 0.0372
H2O2, μM 55.2 (2.33 – 434) 243 (60.7 – 624) 0.0012
Glucose, mmol/L 92.1 (67–114) 90 (45–186) NS
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 192 (143–248) 199 (106–485) NS
Triglycerides, mg/dL 67 (38–149) 152 (61–620) 0.0001
Total protein, g/dL 6.36 (6.08 – 7.1) 6 (3.2 – 7.8) 0.0261
Albumin, g/dL 4.43 (4.11 – 4.98) 3.3 (0.9 – 8.9) 0.0001
Red blood cells, ×103 μL 4.55 ± 0.31 3.59 ± 0.69 0.0001
White blood cells, ×103 μL 5.77 ± 1.09 6.38 ± 1.98 NS
Lymphocytes, % 33.1 ± 5.38 27 ± 9.85 0.0107
Platelets, ×103 μL 206 (132.0 – 310.0) 184 (76–482) NS
Neutrophils, % 59.19 ± 6.424 59.4 ± 13.1 NS
Hemoglobin, g/dL 14.18 ± 1.3 11.1 ± 2.31 0.0001
Hematocrit, % 42 ± 3.1 33.2 ± 6.15 0.0001
Bilirubin, mg/dL 0.34 ± 0.13 0.48 ± 0.22 0.0157
ALT, U/L 34.5 (16 – 53) 28 (10–130) NS
Smokers, % 20.00 22.65 NS
  Pharmacotherapy (%)   
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) 45.28
ACE-inhibitors 49.00
Ca2+ blockers 56.50
β-blockers 41.50
α-blockers 7.50
Nitrates 5.50
ARBs 4.00
  1. Data are shown as mean ± SD or median (range) depending on their normal or skewed distribution
  2. Abbreviations: Sex M male, Sex F female, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, Cu/Zn SOD superoxide dismutase 1, H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide, ALT alanine transaminase, ACE-inhibitors angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, CKD chronic kidney disease, NS non-significant