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Table 1 Main Characteristics of the included studies

From: Efficacy and safety of calcineurin inhibitor treatment for IgA nephropathy: a meta-analysis

Studies Patients Sample size CNIs group Follow-up (mo) Control Definitions of PR and CR Drop-in (CNI/control) ACEI/ARB Jadad score
Lai 1987 [4] proteinuria ≥ 1.5 g/day, eGFR > 50 ml/min/1 73 m2 19 (9/10) CsA 5 mg/kg/day, then reduced by increments of 25% every 4 days over 2 weeks 3/6 placebo CR: Proteinuria less than 0.5 g/day. PR: proteinuria reduced to at least half of the baseline measurement and an absolute value of >0.5 g/day). 1/0 -- 7
Liu 2014 [15] proteinuria >1.0 g/day eGFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 48 (24/24) CsA 3 mg/kg/day with low-dose MP (8 mg/day).
Twelve weeks later, the dose was gradually reduced by 50 mg every month then maintained at a maintenance dose of 25 mg/day.
12/12 MP 0.8 mg/kg/day (max 48 mg/day) CR: Proteinuria less than 0.3 g/day. PR: proteinuria reduced to at least half of the initial level and an absolute value of >0.3 g/day). 3/1 losartan (50 mg/day) 3
Xu 2014 [16] proteinuria >1.0 g/day <3.5 g/day
eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or scr < 150umol/L
96 (48/48) CsA 3 mg/kg/day for 3 months, then 2 mg/kg/day for 9 months; PDN 0.6–0.8 mg/kg/day (max 40 mg/day), then tapered 12/12 PDN 1 mg/kg/day (max 60 mg/day) CR: proteinuria < 0.5 g/day, serum albumin > 35 g/L, and normal Scr.
PR: proteinuria reduced by >25% but still higher than 0.5 g/day, and stable Scr.
0/0 Valsartan 80–160 mg/day 3
Kim 2013 [17] eGFR >45 mL/min/1.73 m2 or scr < 1.5 mg/dl UACR ≥ 0.3 and <3 g/g creatinine 40 (20/20) TAC 0.1 mg/kg/day, After 8 weeks reduced to 0.05 mg/kg/day 3/3 placebo -- 1/0 ARB10/20,8/20 7
Zhang 2013 [14] proteinuria >1.0 g/day <3.5 g/day
eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or scr < 221umol/L
25 (11/14) TAC 0.075 mg/(kg · d), then tapered. PDN 30 mg/day, then tapered 6/6 PDN 0.5 mg/kg/day (max 60 mg/day) CR: proteinuria < 0.3 g/day, and normal Scr.
PR: proteinuria reduced by >30% but still higher than 0.3 g/24 h, and stable Scr.
0/0 -- 2
Ou-yang 2015 [13] eGFR >45 mL/min/1.73 m2 or scr < 1.5 mg/dl UACR ≥ 0.3 and <3 g/g creatinine 56 (28/28) CsA 100 mg/day, then tapered, MP 0.5 mg/kg/day (max 36 mg/day) 6/6 MP 0.8 mg/kg/day (max 48 mg/day) CR was defined as proteinuria < 0.3 g/24 h, and normal Scr.
PR was defined as proteinuria reduced by >30% but still higher than 0.3 g/24 h, and stable Scr.
1/0 losartan (100 mg/day) 7
Liu 2015 [12] proteinuria >3.5 g/day scr < 150umol/L 90 (45/45) CsA 100 mg/day; PDN 1 mg/kg/day, then tapered 3/3 PDN 1 mg/kg/day, then tapered -- 0/0 -- 2
  1. Drop in, patients who are randomized to standard/control arm but start taking/using the experimental treatment; Scr serum creatinine, MP methyl prednisolone, PDN prednisolone, UACR urine albumin to creatinine ratio, CsA Cyclosporine A, TAC Tacrolimus, CNI Calcineurin inhibitor, PR Partial remission rate, CR Complete remission rate