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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline among estimated glomerular filtration rate groups

From: Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio with incidence of cardiovascular diseases and mortality in chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus – a population-based retrospective cohort study

  Total (N = 146,953) eGFR Group 1
(≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2)
(N = 100,785)
eGFR Group 2
(60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2)
(N = 38,537)
eGFR Group 3
(30–59 ml/min/1.73 m2)
(N = 7,067)
eGFR Group 4
(15–29 ml/min/1.73 m2)
(N = 431)
eGFR Group 5
(<15 ml/min/1.73 m2)
(N = 133)
P-value
Socio-demographics
Gender, (%, n)        <0.001
 Female 54.8% (80,506) 53.3% (53,694) 56.4% (21,720) 66.6% (4,705) 70.1% (302) 63.9% (85)  
 Male 45.2% (66,447) 46.7% (47,091) 43.6% (16,817) 33.4% (2,362) 29.9% (129) 36.1% (48)  
Age, years (mean ± SD) 63.91 ± 11.68 60.49 ± 10.78 70.37 ± 9.85 76.21 ± 9.02 79.28 ± 8.88 76.89 ± 11.25 <0.001
Smoking status, (%, n)        <0.001
 Non-smoker 74.5% (109,484) 74.0% (74,541) 75.3% (29,013) 77.8% (5,495) 76.9% (331) 77.3% (103)  
 Ex-smoker 15.0% (21,983) 14.2% (14,264) 16.8% (6,493) 16.1% (1,135) 16.8% (72) 14.1% (19)  
 Current smoker 10.5% (15,486) 11.9% (11,980) 7.9% (3,031) 6.2% (436) 6.4% (27) 8.6% (11)  
Drinking habit, (%, n)        <0.001
 Non-drinker 96.9% (142,369) 96.6% (97,320) 97.4% (37,554) 98.2% (6,943) 98.8% (426) 95.0% (126)  
 Current drinker 3.1% (4,584) 3.4% (3,465) 2.6% (983) 1.8% (124) 1.2% (5) 5.0% (7)  
Clinical parameters
HbA1c, % (mean ± SD) 7.31 ± 1.42 7.40 ± 1.49 7.14 ± 1.25 6.96 ± 1.23 6.63 ± 1.23 6.58 ± 1.55 <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 (mean ± SD) 25.51 ± 4.06 25.57 ± 4.27 25.43 ± 3.82 25.07 ± 4.39 24.86 ± 4.88 24.66 ± 4.25 <0.001
Waist hip ratio (mean ± SD) 0.93 ± 0.20 0.93 ± 0.20 0.94 ± 0.23 0.95 ± 0.19 0.96 ± 0.46 0.94 ± 0.09 <0.001
SBP, mmHg (mean ± SD) 136.69 ± 18.05 135.78 ± 17.70 138.58 ± 18.31 139.28 ± 20.12 137.99 ± 21.88 137.69 ± 22.07 <0.001
DBP, mmHg (mean ± SD) 75.57 ± 10.58 76.62 ± 10.34 73.83 ± 10.63 70.67 ± 10.82 67.90 ± 11.48 67.19 ± 12.59 <0.001
LDL-C, mmol/L (mean ± SD) 3.14 ± 0.88 3.14 ± 0.86 3.14 ± 0.91 3.08 ± 1.01 2.97 ± 0.95 2.98 ± 1.19 <0.001
TC/HDL-C ratio (mean ± SD) 4.40 ± 1.33 4.36 ± 1.34 4.46 ± 1.41 4.54 ± 1.47 4.54 ± 2.79 4.46 ± 2.92 <0.001
Triglyceride, mmol/L (mean ± SD) 1.69 ± 1.17 1.67 ± 1.21 1.74 ± 1.12 1.80 ± 1.13 1.72 ± 1.23 1.61 ± 1.51 <0.001
EGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 (mean ± SD) 101.60 ± 44.27 114.74 ± 47.10 77.79 ± 8.04 50.34 ± 7.34 24.30 ± 4.05 10.59 ± 3.13 <0.001
UACR, mg/mmol (mean ± SD) 7.92 ± 40.51 5.32 ± 27.58 11.03 ± 49.02 25.51 ± 76.21 42.97 ± 111.42 25.47 ± 102.86 <0.001
Disease characteristics
Family history of DM, (%, n)        <0.001
 No 58.1% (85,324) 53.5% (53,924) 66.9% (25,774) 73.6% (5,201) 75.7% (326) 73.5% (98)  
 Yes 41.9% (61,629) 46.5% (46,861) 33.1% (12,763) 26.4% (1,866) 24.3% (105) 26.5% (35)  
Diagnosed Hypertension, (%, n)        <0.001
 No 33.6% (49,356) 40.7% (41,058) 19.1% (7,360) 12.1% (855) 13.2% (57) 19.5% (26)  
 Yes 66.4% (97,597) 59.3% (59,727) 80.9% (31,177) 87.9% (6,212) 86.8% (374) 80.5% (107)  
Duration of DM, years (mean ± SD) 6.35 ± 7.08 5.74 ± 6.51 7.35 ± 7.50 9.34 ± 9.50 10.14 ± 10.37 9.22 ± 11.69 <0.001
Treatment modalities
Anti-hypertensive drugs, (%, n)        <0.001
 No 32.5% (47,768) 39.0% (39,329) 19.3% (7,432) 12.9% (911) 14.6% (63) 24.8% (33)  
 Yes 67.5% (99,185) 61.0% (61,456) 80.7% (31,105) 87.1% (6,156) 85.4% (368) 75.2% (100)  
Oral anti-diabetic drug used, (%, n)        <0.001
 No 30.3% (44,531) 30.7% (30,931) 30.1% (11,613) 25.2% (1,781) 34.3% (148) 43.6% (58)  
 Yes 69.7% (102,422) 69.3% (69,854) 69.9% (26,924) 74.8% (5,286) 65.7% (283) 56.4% (75)  
Insulin used, (%, n)        <0.001
 No 99.1% (145,570) 99.1% (99,922) 99.1% (38,171) 98.3% (6,947) 95.4% (411) 89.5% (119)  
 Yes 0.9% (1,383) 0.9% (863) 0.9% (366) 1.7% (120) 4.6% (20) 10.5% (14)  
Lipid-lowering agents, (%, n)        <0.001
 No 91.1% (133,868) 91.7% (92,388) 89.8% (34,599) 90.1% (6,364) 91.6% (395) 91.7% (122)  
 Yes 8.9% (13,085) 8.3% (8,397) 10.2% (3,938) 9.9% (703) 8.4% (36) 8.3% (11)  
  1. CVD Cardiovascular Diseases, DM Diabetes Mellitus, BMI Body Mass Index, HbA1c Haemoglobin A1c, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, LDL-C Low-density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, TC Total Cholesterol, HDL-C High-density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, UACR Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio, eGFR estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate