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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study participants

From: The association of kidney function with repetitive breath-hold diving activities of female divers from Korea, Haenyeo

  Before Matching After Propensity Matching
  Non-divers Female divers P Standardized differences Non-divers Female divers P Standardized differences
  (n = 3,415) (n = 1,938)    (n = 715) (n = 715)   
Age 45.7 ± 12.2 67.2 ± 9.3 <0.001 2.646 61.4 ± 10.4 60.9 ± 8.7 0.140 0.060
Diabetes 205 (6.0%) 140 (7.2%) 0.080 0.048 58 (8.1%) 53 (7.4%) 0.685 0.026
Hypertension 43 (1.3%) 609 (31.4%) <0.001 0.891 39 (5.5%) 53 (7.4%) 0.109 0.077
Cardiovascular disease 89 (2.6%) 342 (17.6%) <0.001 0.514 45 (6.3%) 45 (6.3%) 1.000 0.000
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.9 ± 1.1 12.8 ± 1.3 0.024 0.030 13.0 ± 1.1 13.0 ± 1.2 0.458 0.016
Serum albumin (g/dL) 4.4 ± 0.3 4.2 ± 0.4 <0.001 0.159 4.3 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.3 0.464 0.008
ALP (IU/L) 64.8 ± 20.9 85.3 ± 42.5 <0.001 0.669 78.5 ± 24.1 78.3 ± 24.4 0.844 0.013
Uric acid (mg/dL) 4.7 ± 1.0 4.9 ± 1.5 <0.001 0.102 4.8 ± 1.2 4.8 ± 1.4 0.729 0.012
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 189 ± 34 196 ± 40 <0.001 0.269 202 ± 38 200 ± 37 0.275 0.076
Calcium (mg/dL) 8.9 ± 0.5 9.0 ± 0.6 <0.001 0.029 9.0 ± 0.5 9.0 ± 0.6 0.324 0.013
Phosphorus (mg/dL) 3.7 ± 0.5 3.6 ± 0.6 <0.001 0.041 3.7 ± 0.5 3.7 ± 0.6 0.930 0.002
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as the mean ± SD, and categorical variables are expressed as the number (percentage). Abbreviations: ALP alkaline phosphatase