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Table 2 Patient characteristics and outcome of patients grouped by AKI definition and on positive urine output criteria alone or with serum creatinine criteria

From: Incidence, timing and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients varies with the definition used and the addition of urine output criteria

Definition RIFLE (N = 326)   AKIN (N = 310)   KDIGO (N = 308)  
  UO only (N = 265) UO and SCr (N = 61) p-value UO only (N = 230) UO and SCr (N = 80) p-value UO only (N = 236) UO and SCr (N = 72) p-value
Characteristics of patients
 Age (years; mean (sd)) 62 (15) 63 (15) 0.753 62 (15) 62 (15) 0.978 62 (15) 63 (14) 0.478
 Male sex (N (%)) 173 (54) 34 (10) 0.185 149 (48) 45 (15) 0.182 153 (50) 41 (13) 0.265
 Body Mass Index (kg/m2; mean (sd)) 27 (5) 26 (6) 0.184 27 (5.2) 26 (5.7) 0.051 27 (5.3) 26 (5.8) 0.118
 APACHE IV score (mean (sd)) 54 (25) 75 (22) 0.000 52 (23) 72 (26) 0.000 52 (23) 74 (26) 0.000
Admission type
 • medical (N (%)) 105 (32) 22 (6.7) 0.009 88 (28) 31 (10) 0.052 95 (31) 22 (7.1) 0.006
 • surgical          
  ◦ scheduled (N (%)) 124 (38) 21 (6.4)   112 (36) 30 (9.7)   112 (36) 30 (9.7)  
  ◦ emergency (N (%)) 36 (11) 18 (5.5)   30 (9.7) 19 (6.1)   29 (9.4) 20 (6.5)  
Co morbidity
 • diabetes mellitus (N (%)) 47 (14) 11 (3.4) 1 40 (13) 12 (3.9) 0.729 41 (13) 11 (3.6) 0.857
 • chronic kidney disease (N (%)) 3 (0.9) 2 (0.6) 0.236 2 (0.6) 3 (0.9) 0.110 2 (0.6) 3 0.085
 • chronic dialysis (N (%)) 0 (0) 0 (0) na 0 (0) 0 (0) na 0 (0) (0.97) 0 (0) na
ICU Length of stay (days; median [IQR]) 3 [2–6] 6 [3–11] 0.000 3 [2–5] 6 [3–11] 0.000 3 [2–6] 5 [3–9.8] 0.000
ICU mortality (N (%)) 13 (4.0) 6 (1.8) 0.139 8 (2.6) 11 (3.5) 0.002 10 (3.2) 9 (2.9) 0.021
Hospital mortality (N (%)) 24 (7.4) 13 (4.0) 0.012 17 (5.5) 19 (6.1) 0.000 19 (6.2) 17 (5.5) 0.001
  1. RIFLE ‘risk’, ‘injury’, ‘failure’, ‘loss’ and ‘end-stage’ definition
  2. AKIN acute kidney injury network definition
  3. KDIGO kidney disease improving global outcome definition
  4. UO urine output. SCr: serum creatinine
  5. N number of patients
  6. P-value difference between patients with only urine output criteria positive and patients with both criteria positive